Continuous assessment of cardiac function during rotary blood pump support: a contractility index derived from pump flow.
ABSTRACT The clinical application of rotary blood pumps (RBPs) for bridge-to-recovery and destination therapy has focused interest on the remaining contractile function of the heart and its course. This study reports a method to determine contractility that uses readily measured variables of the RBP.
The proposed index (I(Q)) is defined as the slope of a linear regression between the maximum derivative of the pump flow and its peak-to-peak value. I(Q) was compared with the maximal derivative of ventricular pressure (dP/dt(max)) vs end-diastolic volume (EDV) and the pre-load-recruitable stroke work. All indices were evaluated using computer simulations and animal experiments. For in vivo studies, a MicroMed-DeBakey ventricular assist device (VAD) was implanted in 7 healthy sheep. Ventricular contractility was examined under normal conditions and after pharmacologic intervention. For the computer simulation, variations of ventricular contractility, ventricular pre-load and after-load, and pump speeds were studied.
In vivo and computer simulations showed the I(Q) index to be sensitive to changes of cardiac contractility, similar to other classic indices. For reduced cardiac contractility, it decreased to 9.3 +/- 3.9 (s(-1)) vs 15.3 +/- 4.0 (s(-1)) in the control condition (in vivo experiments). The I(Q) index was only marginally influenced by pre-load and after-load changes: a variation of 7.0% +/- 8.9% and 1.3% +/- 7.1%, respectively, was observed in computer simulations.
The I(Q) index, which can be derived from pump data only, is a useful parameter for continuous monitoring of the cardiac contractility in patients with RBP support.
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ABSTRACT: It is important to accurately monitor residual cardiac function in patients under long-term continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (cfLVAD) support. Two new measures of left ventricular (LV) chamber contractility in the cfLVAD-unloaded ventricle include IQ , a regression coefficient between maximum flow acceleration and flow pulsatility at different pump speeds; and K, a logarithmic relationship between volumes moved in systole and diastole. We sought to optimize these indices. We also propose RIQ , a ratio between maximum flow acceleration and flow pulsatility at baseline pump speed, as an alternative to IQ . Eleven patients (mean age 49 ± 11 years) were studied. The K index was derived at baseline pump speed by defining systolic and diastolic onset as time points at which maximum and minimum volumes move through the pump. IQ across the full range of pump speeds was markedly different between patients. It was unreliable in three patients with underlying atrial fibrillation (coefficient of determination R(2) range: 0.38-0.74) and also when calculated without pump speed manipulation (R(2) range: 0.01-0.74). The K index was within physiological ranges, but poorly correlated to both IQ (P = 0.42) and RIQ (P = 0.92). In four patients there was excellent correspondence between RIQ and IQ , while four other patients showed a poor relationship between these indices. As RIQ does not require pump speed changes, it may be a more clinically appropriate measure. Further studies are required to determine the validity of these indices.Artificial Organs 03/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monitoring of cardiac rhythms is of major importance in the treatment of heart failure patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) implanted. A continuous surveillance of these rhythms could improve out-of-hospital care in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiac rhythms using available pump data only. Datasets (n = 141) obtained in the normal ward, in the intensive care unit, and during bicycle ergometry were analyzed in 11 recipients of a continuous flow LVAD (59.1 ± 9.7 years; male 82%). Tachograms and arrhythmic patterns derived from the pump flow waveform, and a simultaneously recorded ECG were compared, as well as heart rate variability parameters such as: the average heart beat duration (RR interval), the standard deviation of the beat duration (SDNN), the root-mean-square of the difference of successive beat durations (RMSSD), and the number of pairs of adjacent beat duration differing by >50 ms divided by the number of all beats (pNN50). A very good agreement of cardiac rhythm parameters from the pump flow compared with ECG was found. Tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and extrasystoles could be accurately identified from the tachograms derived from the pump flow. Also, Bland-Altman analysis comparing pump flow with ECG indicated a very small difference in average RR interval of 0.3 ± 1.0 ms, in SSDN of 0.5 ± 2.7 ms, in RMSSD of 1.0 ± 5.6 ms, and in pNN50 of 0.3 ± 1.0%. Continuous monitoring of cardiac rhythms from available pump data is possible. It has the potential to reduce the out-of-hospital diagnostic burden and to permit a more efficient adjustment of the level of mechanical support.Artificial Organs 08/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Estimation of instantaneous flow in rotary blood pumps (RBPs) is important for monitoring the interaction between heart and pump and eventually the ventricular function. Our group has reported an algorithm to derive ventricular contractility based on the maximum time derivative (dQ/dt(max) as a substitute for ventricular dP/dt(max) ) and pulsatility of measured flow signals. However, in RBPs used clinically, flow is estimated with a bandwidth too low to determine dQ/dt(max) in the case of improving heart function. The aim of this study was to develop a flow estimator for a centrifugal pump with bandwidth sufficient to provide noninvasive cardiac diagnostics. The new estimator is based on both static and dynamic properties of the brushless DC motor. An in vitro setup was employed to identify the performance of pump and motor up to 20 Hz. The algorithm was validated using physiological ventricular and arterial pressure waveforms in a mock loop which simulated different contractilities (dP/dt(max) 600 to 2300 mm Hg/s), pump speeds (2 to 4 krpm), and fluid viscosities (2 to 4 mPa·s). The mathematically estimated pump flow data were then compared to the datasets measured in the mock loop for different variable combinations (flow ranging from 2.5 to 7 L/min, pulsatility from 3.5 to 6 L/min, dQ/dt(max) from 15 to 60 L/min/s). Transfer function analysis showed that the developed algorithm could estimate the flow waveform with a bandwidth up to 15 Hz (±2 dB). The mean difference between the estimated and measured average flows was +0.06 ± 0.31 L/min and for the flow pulsatilities -0.27 ± 0.2 L/min. Detection of dQ/dt(max) was possible up to a dP/dt(max) level of 2300 mm Hg/s. In conclusion, a flow estimator with sufficient frequency bandwidth and accuracy to allow determination of changes in ventricular contractility even in the case of improving heart function was developed.Artificial Organs 08/2012; 36(8):691-9. · 1.96 Impact Factor