The role of keratinocyte growth factor in melanogenesis: a possible mechanism for the initiation of solar lentigines.
ABSTRACT Solar lentigines (SLs) are hyperpigmentary lesions presented on sun-exposed areas of the skin and associated with ageing. The molecular mechanism of SL initiation is not completely understood. Ultraviolet B (UVB) stimulates keratinocytes to produce interlukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), which then induces keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) secretion; therefore, we examined their possible roles in the induction of SLs. We found that KGF increases pigment production in both pigmented epidermal equivalents and human skin explants. In addition, UVB exposure increases KGF expression, and KGF treatment induces tyrosinase (TYR) expression in primary melanocytes. The KGF-induced pigmentary changes were confirmed using pigmented Yucatan swine, and human skins grafted onto immuno-deficient mice. In both model systems, the topical treatment with KGF, alone or in combination with IL-1α, resulted in the in vivo formation of hyperpigmentary lesions with increased pigment deposition and elongated rete ridges, which resemble the histological features of human SLs. Preliminary immunohistochemical analysis of human skins showed a moderate increase in KGF, and a strong induction in KGF receptor (KGFR) in SL lesions. In summary, KGF increases pigment production and deposition in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we show for the first time the in vivo generation of hyperpigmentary lesions with histological resemblance to human SLs and indicate the involvement of KGF/KGFR in the molecular pathology of human SLs.
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ABSTRACT: Melanin is the one of most important pigments for skin color in mammals. Excessive biosynthesis of melanin induces various pigment disorders. Much effort has been made to develop regulators to minimize skin pigmentation abnormalities. However, only a few of them are used, primarily because of safety concerns and low efficiency. In this study, we aimed to construct a novel nanosphere-gel for sequential delivery of salidroside and paeonol, to investigate the synergistic effects of these drugs in anti-melanogenesis, and to decrease their potential for toxicity in high dosage. Nanospheres were prepared and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and morphological properties. The optimized nanospheres were incorporated in carbomer hydrogel with both paeonol and salidroside entrapped to form a dual drug-releasing nanosphere-gel. With this nanosphere-gel, rapid release of salidroside from the hydrogel followed by sustained release of paeonol from the nanosphere was achieved. Using a classical model of the melanogenesis response to ultraviolet exposure, it was shown that the anti-melanogenesis effects of the dual drug-releasing system, in which the doses of the individual drugs were decreased by half, was obviously enhanced when compared with the effects of the single drug preparations. Mechanistically, the burst release of salidroside from the hydrogel may enable prompt suppression of melanocyte proliferation on exposure to ultraviolet B radiation, while the paeonol released in a sustained manner can provide continuous inhibition of tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. Combined delivery of salidroside and paeonol was demonstrated to be a promising strategy for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of these agents in anti-melanogenesis and reducing their toxicity, so may have great potential in nanomedicine.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9:1897-1908. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Freckles, the lay term for ephelides and lentigines, are important pigmentation characteristics observed in humans. Both are affected by sunlight; ephelides are largely genetically determined but induced by sunlight whereas lentigines are induced by sun exposure and photodamage of the skin. However, despite being commonly observed, we know very little about them. Here we review the current status of knowledge about freckles and propose a model for their formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 02/2014; · 5.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Solar lentigines (SLs) are characterized by hyperpigmented macules, commonly seen on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Although it has been reported that an increase in the number of melanocytes and epidermal melanin content was observed in the lesions, the following questions remain to be answered: (1) Is acceleration of melanogenesis in the epidermis caused by an increased number of melanocytes or the high melanogenic potential of each melanocyte? (2) Why does the number of melanocytes increase? To elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of SLs by investigating the number, melanogenic potential and proliferation status of the melanocyte lineage in healthy skin and SL lesions. Immunostaining for melanocyte lineage markers (tyrosinase, MART-1, MITF, and Frizzled-4) and a proliferation marker, Ki67, was performed on skin sections, and the obtained images were analyzed by image analysis software. The expression level of tyrosinase to MART-1 of each melanocyte was significantly higher in SL lesions than healthy skin. The numbers of melanocytes in the epidermis, melanoblasts in the hair follicular infundibulum and melanocyte stem cells in the bulge region were increased in SL; however, no significant difference was observed in the Ki67-positive rate of these cells. The melanogenic potential of each melanocyte was elevated in SL lesions. It was suggested that the increased number of melanocytes in the SL epidermis might be attributed to the abnormal increase of melanocyte stem cells in the bulge.Journal of dermatological science 11/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor