Advances in the Application of Technology to Epilepsy: The CIMIT/NIO Epilepsy Innovation Summit
ABSTRACT In 2008, a group of clinicians, scientists, engineers, and industry representatives met to discuss advances in the application of engineering technologies to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. The presentations also provided a guide for further technological development, specifically in the evaluation of patients for epilepsy surgery, seizure onset detection and seizure prediction, intracranial treatment systems, and extracranial treatment systems. This article summarizes the discussions and demonstrates that cross-disciplinary interactions can catalyze collaborations between physicians and engineers to address and solve many of the pressing unmet needs in epilepsy.
SourceAvailable from: Muhammad Tariqus Salam[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this article, we present an implantable closed-loop epilepsy prosthesis, which is dedicated to automatically detect seizure onsets based on intracerebral electroencephalographic (icEEG) recordings from intracranial electrode contacts and provide an electrical stimulation feedback to the same contacts in order to disrupt these seizures. A novel epileptic seizure detector and a dedicated electrical stimulator were assembled together with common recording electrodes to complete the proposed prosthesis. The seizure detector was implemented in CMOS 0.18-μm by incorporating a new seizure detection algorithm that models time-amplitude and -frequency relationship in icEEG. The detector was validated offline on ten patients with refractory epilepsy and showed excellent performance for early detection of seizures. The electrical stimulator, used for suppressing the developing seizure, is composed of two biphasic channels and was assembled with embedded FPGA in a miniature PCB. The stimulator efficiency was evaluated on cadaveric animal brain tissue in an in vitro morphologic electrical model. Spatial characteristics of the voltage distribution in cortex were assessed in an attempt to identify optimal stimulation parameters required to affect the suspected epileptic focus. The experimental results suggest that lower frequency stimulation parameters cause significant amount of shunting of current through the cerebrospinal fluid; however higher frequency stimulation parameters produce effective spatial voltage distribution with lower stimulation charge.ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems 06/2012; 8(2):1-18. DOI:10.1145/2180878.2180881 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) via tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCREs) has been under development as an alternative/complementary therapy for seizure control. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation has shown efficacy in attenuating penicillin-, pilocarpine-, and pentylenetetrazole-induced acute seizures in rat models. This study evaluated the effects of TFS via TCREs on the memory formation of healthy rats as a safety test of TFS. Short- and long-term memory formation was tested after the application of TFS using the novel object recognition (NOR) test. The following independent groups were used: naïve, control (without TFS), and TFS (treated). The naïve, control, and stimulated groups spent more time investigating the new object than the familiar one during the test phase. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation via TCREs given once does not modify the short- and long-term memory formation in rats in the NOR test. Results provide an important step towards a better understanding for the safe usage of TFS via TCREs.Epilepsy & Behavior 02/2013; 27(1):154-158. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.01.006 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this work, composite microelectrodes from poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) are characterized as electrochemical sensing material for neurotransmitters. Dopamine can be detected using square wave voltammetry at these microelectrodes. The CNTs improve the sensitivity by a factor of two. In addition, the selectivity towards dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid was examined. While both electrodes, PEDOT and PEDOT‐CNT are able to detect all measured concentrations of dopamine in the presence of uric acid, small concentrations of dopamine and ascorbic acid are only distinguishable at PEDOT‐CNT electrodes. Changing the pH has a strong influence on the selectivity. Moreover, it is possible to detect concentrations as low as 1 µM dopamine in complex cell culture medium. Finally, other catecholamines like serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine and L‐dopa are also electrochemically detectable at PEDOT‐CNT microelectrodes.Electroanalysis 03/2014; 26(3). DOI:10.1002/elan.201300547 · 2.50 Impact Factor