Should the extrahepatic bile duct be resected or preserved in R0 radical surgery for advanced gallbladder carcinoma? Results of a Japanese Society of Biliary Surgery Survey: a multicenter study.
ABSTRACT We assessed the significance of an extra bile duct resection by comparing the survival of patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma who had resected bile ducts with those who had preserved bile ducts. A radical cholecystectomy that includes extra bile duct resections has been performed without any clear evidence of whether an extra bile duct resection is preventive or curative.
We conducted a questionnaire survey among clinicians who belonged to the 114 member institutions of the Japanese Society of Biliary Surgery. The questionnaires included questions on the preoperative diagnosis, complications, treatment, and surgical treatment, resection procedures, surgical results, pathological and histological findings, mode and site of recurrence, and the need for additional postoperative treatment. A total of 4243 patients who had gallbladder carcinoma and were treated from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2003 were identified. The 838 R0 patients with pT2, pT3, and pT4 advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder for which there was no cancer invasion to the hepatoduodenal ligament or cystic duct in the final analysis.
The 5-year cumulative survival, postoperative complications, postoperative lymph node metastasis, and local recurrence along the hepatoduodenal ligament were not substantially different between the resected bile duct and the preserved bile duct groups.
Our retrospective questionnaire survey showed that an extrahepatic bile duct resection had no preventive value in some patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma in comparison to similar patients who had no such bile duct resection. An extrahepatic bile duct resection may therefore be unnecessary in advanced gallbladder carcinoma without a direct infiltration of the hepatoduodenal ligament and the cystic duct.
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ABSTRACT: Routine extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) resection in non-jaundiced patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) is controversial. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse patterns of recurrence in patients who underwent resection of GBC without routine EBD resection. This analysis referred to 58 patients who had undergone explorative laparotomy for GBC during 2000-2012 at a single, tertiary referral centre. Overall survival, time to recurrence, and patterns of recurrence were assessed in patients who underwent conventional negative-margin (R0) resection without routine EBD resection. Of 58 patients submitted to explorative laparotomy for GBC, 26 (45%) patients underwent R0 resection without EBD resection (tumour stage T1b in five patients, T2 in 17, T3 in three, and T4 in one). The 3-year survival rate among these patients was 78% at a median follow-up of 33 months (range: 13-127 months). Seven patients developed recurrent disease at a median of 9 months (range: 2-25 months) after resection. No patients developed isolated recurrent disease at the EBD. Of 26 patients resected for GBC, none developed isolated recurrent disease at the EBD after conventional resection of GBC without EBD resection. This finding suggests that routine EBD resection is of no additional value.HPB 11/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resection of the extrahepatic bile duct is not performed uniformly in gallbladder cancer. The study investigated the clinical significance of resection of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) in T2 and T3 gallbladder cancer. Between 2000 and 2010, 71 T2 or T3 gallbladder cancer patients who underwent R0 resection at Korea University Medical Center were included. Clinicopathological data were reviewed retrospectively. Survival analysis and comparison between EHBD resection and non-resection groups were performed. The 32 men and 39 women had 49 T2 tumors and 22 T3 tumors. The overall survival rate was 67.8 % at 3 years and 47.2 % at 5 years. In multivariate analysis for overall survival, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis were significant independent predictors. Comparing the patients according to EHBD resection, the EHBD resection group demonstrated significantly longer hospital stay, longer operative time, more transfusion requirement, more extensive liver resection, and less treatment of neoadjuvant therapy. Significantly higher proportions of perineural invasion and lymph node metastasis were noted in the EHBD resection group. There were no statistically significant differences in survival between the EHBD resection and non-resection groups. Resection of extrahepatic bile duct was not always necessary in T2 and T3 cancers. However, the patients who undergo resection of extrahepatic bile duct tended to have more aggressive tumor characteristics and undergo more aggressive surgical approach. To enhance overall survival for the patients with T2 and T3 gallbladder cancers, surgeons should try to perform R0 resection including EHBD resection.Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 09/2013; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Introduction: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the fifth most common neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common cancer of the biliary tract. GBC is suspected preoperatively in only 30e40% of patients. The other 60e70% are discovered incidentally (IGBC) by the pathologist on a gallbladder specimen following cholecystectomy for benign diseases such as polyps, gallstones, and cholecystitis. Materials and methods: Between 1995 and 2011, 30 cases of GBC, who underwent resection with curative intent in our institutions, were retrospectively reviewed. They were analyzed for demographic data, and type of operation, surgical morbidity and mortality, histopathological classification, and sur-vival. Incidental GBC was compared with suspected or preoperatively diagnosed GBC. Overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS) and the difference in DFS between patients previously treated with laparo-scopic cholecystectomy and those who had oncological resection as first intervention were analyzed. The authors also present a systematic review to evaluate the role of extended surgery in the treatment of the incidental GBC. Results: GBC was diagnosed in 30 patients, 16 women and 14 men. The M/F ratio was 1:1.14 and the mean age was 69.4 years (range 45e83 years). A preoperative diagnosis was possible only in 14 cases; fourteen of the incidental cases were diagnosed postoperatively after the pathological ex-amination; two were suspected intraoperatively at the opening of the surgical specimen and then confirmed by frozen sections. The ratio between incidental and nonincidental cases was 1, 14/1, with twelve cases discovered after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Eighty-one per cent of the incidental cases were discovered at an early stage (II). The preoperative diagnosis of the 30 patients with GBC was: GBC with liver invasion diagnosed by preoperative CT (nine cases); gallbladder abscess perforated into he-patic parenchyma and involving the transversal mesocolon and hepatic hilum (one case); porcelain gallbladder (three cases); gallbladder adenoma (four cases); and chronic cholecystolithiasis (thirteen cases). Every case, except one, with a T1b or more advanced invasion underwent IVb þ V wedge liver resection and pericholedochic/hepatoduodenal lymphoadenectomy. One patient refused further surgery. Cases with Tis and T1a involvement were treated with cholecystectomy alone. Nine of the sixteen pa-tients with incidental diagnosis reached 5-year DFS (56.25%) and eight of them are recurrence free. Surprisingly, one patient reached 38 mo survival despite a port-site recurrence (the only one in our experience) 2 years after the original surgery requiring further resection. Cases with non incidental diagnosis were more locally advanced and only two patients experienced 5 years DFS (Tables 2 and 3). (A. Cavallaro), email@example.com (G. Piccolo), firstname.lastname@example.org (M. Di Vita), email@example.com (A. Zanghì), firstname.lastname@example.org (F. Cardì), email@example.com (P. Di Mattia), firstname.lastname@example.org (L. Borzì), email@example.com (V. Panebianco), firstname.lastname@example.org (I. Di Carlo), email@example.com (M. Cavallaro), firstname.lastname@example.org (A. Cappellani). International Journal of Surgery j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . j o u r n a l -s u r g e r y . n e t Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not affect survival if implemented properly. Reoperation should have two objectives: R0 resection and clearance of the lymph nodes.International Journal of Surgery (London, England) 08/2014; · 1.44 Impact Factor