Axon–Myelin Interactions during a Viral Infection of the Central Nervous System

The Fox Chase Cancer Center, United States of America
PLoS Pathogens (Impact Factor: 8.06). 09/2009; 5(9):e1000519. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000519
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: In the central nervous system (CNS) the majority of axons are surrounded by a myelin sheath, which is produced by oligodendrocytes. Myelin is a lipid-rich insulating material that facilitates the rapid conduction of electrical impulses along the myelinated nerve fibre. Proteolipid protein and its isoform DM20 constitute the most abundant protein component of CNS myelin. Mutations in the PLP1 gene encoding these myelin proteins cause Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and the related allelic disorder, spastic paraplegia type 2. Animal models of these diseases, particularly models lacking or overexpressing Plp1, have shed light on the interplay between axons and oligodendrocytes, and how one component influences the other.
    Journal of Anatomy 03/2011; 219(1):33-43. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01363.x · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease which can presents in different clinical courses. The most common form of MS is the relapsing-remitting (RR) course, which in many cases evolves into secondary progressive (SP) disease. Autoimmune models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have been developed to represent the various clinical forms of MS. These models along with clinico-pathological evidence obtained from MS patients have allowed us to propose '1-stage' and '2-stage' disease theories to explain the transition in the clinical course of MS from RR to SP. Relapses in MS are associated with pro-inflammatory T helper (Th) 1/Th17 immune responses, while remissions are associated with anti-inflammatory Th2/regulatory T (Treg) immune responses. Based on the '1-stage disease' theory, the transition from RR to SP disease occurs when the inflammatory immune response overwhelms the anti-inflammatory immune response. The '2-stage disease' theory proposes that the transition from RR to SP-MS occurs when the Th2 response or some other responses overwhelm the inflammatory response resulting in the sustained production of anti-myelin antibodies, which cause continuing demyelination, neurodegeneration, and axonal loss. The Theiler's virus model is also a 2-stage disease, where axonal degeneration precedes demyelination during the first stage, followed by inflammatory demyelination during the second stage.
    Pathophysiology 05/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.pathophys.2012.03.003
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that has been extensively studied using the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). It is believed that CD4(+) T lymphocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease by mediating the demyelination of neuronal axons via secretion of proinflammatory cytokines resulting in the clinical manifestations. Although a great deal of information has been gained in the last several decades about the cells involved in the inflammatory and disease mediating process, important questions have remained unanswered. It has long been held that initial neuroantigen presentation and T cell activation events occur in the immune periphery and then translocate to the CNS. However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that antigen (Ag) presentation might initiate within the CNS itself. Importantly, it has remained unresolved which antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the CNS are the first to acquire and present neuroantigens during EAE/MS to T cells, and what the conditions are under which this takes place, ie, whether this occurs in the healthy CNS or only during inflammatory conditions and what the related cytokine microenvironment is comprised of. In particular, the central role of interferon-γ as a primary mediator of CNS pathology during EAE has been challenged by the emergence of Th17 cells producing interleukin-17. This review describes our current understanding of potential APCs in the CNS and the contribution of these and other CNS-resident cells to disease pathology. Additionally, we discuss the question of where Ag presentation is initiated and under what conditions neuroantigens are made available to APCs with special emphasis on which cytokines may be important in this process.
    Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 09/2011; 31(10):753-68. DOI:10.1089/jir.2011.0052 · 3.90 Impact Factor

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