Transplacental pharmacokinetics of glyburide, rhodamine 123, and BODIPY FL prazosin: effect of drug efflux transporters and lipid solubility.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.89). 09/2009; 331(3):1118-25. DOI: 10.1124/jpet.109.160564
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are the most abundantly expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters in the placenta. They recognize a large, partly overlapping spectrum of chemically unrelated compounds and affect their transplacental passage. In this study we investigate the effect of Bcrp and P-gp on the transplacental pharmacokinetics of their specific and common substrates employing the technique of dually perfused rat placenta. We show that the clearance of rhodamine 123 (P-gp substrate), glyburide (BCRP substrate) and BODIPY FL prazosin (P-gp and BCRP substrate) in fetal-to-maternal direction is 11, 11.2 and 4 times higher, respectively, than that in the maternal-to-fetal direction. In addition, all of these substances were found to be transported from the fetal compartment even against concentration gradient. We thus demonstrate the ability of placental ABC transporters to hinder maternal-to-fetal and accelerate fetal-to-maternal transport in a concentration-dependent manner. However, by means of pharmacokinetic modeling we describe the inverse correlation between lipid solubility of a molecule and its active transport by placental ABC efflux transporters. Therefore, in the case of highly lipophilic substrates, such as BODIPY FL prazosin in this study, the efficacy of efflux transporters to pump the molecule back to the maternal circulation is markedly limited.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tenofovir (TFV) is used in pregnant women as a part of combination antiretroviral treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. We aimed to detect whether TFV and/or its prodrug, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), are substrates of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that are functionally expressed in the placenta, namely P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/MDR1), Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (ABCG2/BCRP) and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 (ABCC2/MRP2). We employed in-vitro cell-based assays and in-situ animal model to assess possible role of the efflux transporters in transplacental pharmacokinetics of TFV and TDF. In-vitro transport assays were performed in MDCKII cells transduced with human ABCB1, ABCG2 or ABCC2. To quantify the effect of these transporters on TFV/TDF transplacental passage, we employed the in-situ model of dually perfused rat term placenta in open and closed setup. In-vitro assays revealed that TDF is a dual substrate of ABCB1 and ABCG2 but not of ABCC2. In contrast, TFV transport was not influenced by any of these transporters. Applying concentration-dependent studies and selective inhibitors, we further confirmed these findings in situ on the organ level; both ABCB1 and ABCG2 limited mother-to-fetus transfer of TDF whereas TFV transplacental passage was not affected by these ABC transporters. We propose limited mother-to-fetus transport of both TFV and TDF. While placental transport of TFV is restricted passively, by physical-chemical properties of the molecule, mother-to-fetus passage of TDF is actively hindered by placental ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters, pumping this compound from trophoblast back to maternal circulation.
    AIDS 01/2014; 28(1):9-17. · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The xenobiotic transporters are among the most important constituents of detoxification system in living organisms. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is one of the major transporters involved in the efflux of xenobiotics. To understand its role in chemotherapeutic and multidrug resistance, it is crucial to establish the determinants of its substrate specificity, which obviously is of high relevance for successful therapy of many diseases. This article summarizes the current knowledge about the substrate preferences of BCRP. We overview the factors which determine its activity, inhibition and substrate recognition, focusing on the structural features of the transporter. BCRP substrate specificity is quite low as it interacts with a spectrum of substances with only a few common features: hydrophobic and aromatic regions, possibly a flat conformation and the metal ion-, oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functionalities, most of which may be the donors/acceptors of H-bonds. Several amino acid residues and structural motifs are responsible for BCRP activity and substrate recognition. Thus, the active form of BCRP, at least a dimer or a larger oligomer is maintained by intramolecular disulfide bridge that involves Cys(603) residues. The GXXXG motif in transmembrane helix 1, Cys residues, Arg(482) and Lys(86) are responsible for maintaining the protein structure, which confers transport activity, and the His(457) or Arg(456) residues are directly involved in substrate binding. Arg(482) does not directly bind substrates, but electrostatically interacts with charged molecules, which initiates the conformational changes that transmit the signal from the transmembrane regions to the ABC domain.
    Drug metabolism reviews. 07/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glyburide (glibenclamide, GLB) is a widely prescribed antidiabetic with potential beneficial effects in central nervous system injury and diseases. In vitro studies show that GLB is a substrate of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter families, which may influence GLB distribution and pharmacokinetics in vivo. In the present study, we used [(11)C]GLB positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to non-invasively observe the distribution of GLB at a non-saturating tracer dose in baboons. The role of OATP and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in [(11)C]GLB whole-body distribution, plasma kinetics, and metabolism was assessed using the OATP inhibitor rifampicin and the dual OATP/P-gp inhibitor cyclosporine. Finally, we used in situ brain perfusion in mice to pinpoint the effect of ABC transporters on GLB transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). PET revealed the critical role of OATP on liver [(11)C]GLB uptake and its subsequent impact on [(11)C]GLB metabolism and plasma clearance. OATP-mediated uptake also occurred in the myocardium and kidney parenchyma but not the brain. The inhibition of P-gp in addition to OATP did not further influence [(11)C]GLB tissue and plasma kinetics. At the BBB, the inhibition of both P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) was necessary to demonstrate the role of ABC transporters in limiting GLB brain uptake. This study demonstrates that GLB distribution, metabolism, and elimination are greatly dependent on OATP activity, the first step in GLB hepatic clearance. Conversely, P-gp, BCRP, and probably multidrug resistance protein 4 work in synergy to limit GLB brain uptake.
    The AAPS Journal 08/2013; · 3.91 Impact Factor


Available from
May 23, 2014