Eotaxin Increases Monolayer Permeability of Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

Molecular Surgeon Research Center, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (Impact Factor: 6). 09/2009; 29(12):2146-52. DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.194134
Source: PubMed


The objective of this study was to determine the effects and molecular mechanisms of eotaxin, a newly discovered chemokine (CCL11), on endothelial permeability in the human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs).
Cells were treated with eotaxin, and the monolayer permeability was studied by using a costar transwell system with a Texas Red-labeled dextran tracer. Eotaxin significantly increased monolayer permeability in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, eotaxin treatment significantly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of endothelial junction molecules including zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-1 in a concentration-dependent manner as determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Increased oxidative stress was observed in eotaxin-treated HCAECs by analysis of cellular glutathione levels. Furthermore, eotaxin treatment substantially activated the phosphorylation of MAPK p38. HCAECs expressed CCR3. Consequently, antioxidants (ginkgolide B and MnTBAP), specific p38 inhibitor SB203580, and anti-CCR3 antibody effectively blocked the eotaxin-induced permeability increase in HCAECs. Eotaxin also increased the phosphorylation of Stat3 and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in HCAECs.
Eotaxin increases vascular permeability through CCR3, the downregulation of tight junction proteins, increase of oxidative stress, and activation of MAPK p38, Stat3, and NF-kB pathways in HCAECs.

Download full-text


Available from: Qizhi Yao,
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-8 plays the critical role in the initiation of micro-environmental inflammation responsible for tumour growth and patient prognosis. This study aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms of IL-8 production from human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The levels of IL-8 and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1/2 and Akt in MHCC-97H cells were measured by ELISA, Western blot and immunofluorescence. NF-κB p65 protein nuclear translocation was determined by non-radioactive NF-κB p50/p65 transcription factor activity kit and cell bio-behaviours were detected by the real-time cell-monitoring system. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) significantly induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, Akt and production of IL-8 from HCC cells, which were prevented by SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), PD98059 (ERK inhibitor), LY294002 and Wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor) and SB328437 (CCR3 inhibitor). TNF-α could significantly increase the translocation of NF-κB p65 protein into the nucleus in a dose-dependent manner, while SB203580 partially inhibited. In inflammatory micro-environment, HCC auto-produced IL-8 through p38 MAPK, ERK and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways, where the p38 MAPK is a central factor to activate the NF-κB pathway and regulate the expression of IL-8 production. There was a potential cross-talking between receptors.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 05/2011; 16(3):496-506. DOI:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2011.01337.x · 4.01 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The occludin-like proteins belong to a family of tetraspan transmembrane proteins carrying a marvel domain. The intrinsic function of the occludin family is not yet clear. Occludin is a unique marker of any tight junction and is found in polarized endothelial and epithelial tissue barriers, at least in the adult vertebrate organism. Occludin is able to oligomerize and to form tight junction strands by homologous and heterologous interactions, but has no direct tightening function. Its oligomerization is affected by pro- and antioxidative agents or processes. Phosphorylation of occludin has been described at multiple sites and is proposed to play a regulatory role in tight junction assembly and maintenance and, hence, to influence tissue barrier characteristics. Redox-dependent signal transduction mechanisms are among the pathways modulating occludin phosphorylation and function. This review discusses the novel concept that occludin plays a key role in the redox regulation of tight junctions, which has a major impact in pathologies related to oxidative stress and corresponding pharmacologic interventions.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 09/2011; 15(5):1195-219. DOI:10.1089/ars.2010.3542 · 7.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The broad repertoire of secreted trophic and immunomodulatory cytokines produced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), generally referred to as the MSC secretome, has considerable potential for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, harnessing this MSC secretome for meaningful therapeutic outcomes is challenging due to the limited control of cytokine production following their transplantation. This review outlines the current understanding of the MSC secretome as a therapeutic for treatment of ischemic heart disease. We discuss ongoing investigative directions aimed at improving cellular activity and characterizing the secretome and its regulation in greater detail. Finally, we provide insights on and perspectives for future development of the MSC secretome as a therapeutic tool.
    Cell stem cell 03/2012; 10(3):244-58. DOI:10.1016/j.stem.2012.02.005 · 22.27 Impact Factor
Show more