Sequential Reactions of Surface- Tethered Glycolytic Enzymes

Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
Chemistry & biology (Impact Factor: 6.59). 09/2009; 16(9):1013-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.08.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The development of complex hybrid organic-inorganic devices faces several challenges, including how they can generate energy. Cells face similar challenges regarding local energy production. Mammalian sperm solve this problem by generating ATP down the flagellar principal piece by means of glycolytic enzymes, several of which are tethered to a cytoskeletal support via germ-cell-specific targeting domains. Inspired by this design, we have produced recombinant hexokinase type 1 and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase capable of oriented immobilization on a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid modified surface. Specific activities of enzymes tethered via this strategy were substantially higher than when randomly adsorbed. Furthermore, these enzymes showed sequential activities when tethered onto the same surface. This is the first demonstration of surface-tethered pathway components showing sequential enzymatic activities, and it provides a first step toward reconstitution of glycolysis on engineered hybrid devices.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sperm utilize glycolysis to generate ATP required for motility and several spermatogenic cell-specific glycolytic isozymes are associated with the fibrous sheath (FS) in the principle piece of the sperm flagellum. We used proteomics and molecular biology approaches to confirm earlier reports that a novel enolase is present in mouse sperm. We then found that a pan-enolase antibody, but not antibodies to ENO2 and ENO3, recognized a protein in the principal piece of the mouse sperm flagellum. Database analyses identified two previously uncharacterized enolase family-like candidate genes, 64306537H0Rik and Gm5506. Northern analysis indicated that 64306537H0Rik (renamed Eno4) was transcribed in testes of mice by Postnatal Day 12. To determine the role of ENO4, we generated mice using ES cells in which an Eno4 allele was disrupted by a gene trap containing a beta galactosidase (beta-gal) reporter (Eno4+/Gt). Expression of beta-gal occurred in the testis and male mice homozygous for the gene trap allele (Eno4Gt/Gt) were infertile. Epididymal sperm numbers were two-fold lower and sperm motility was reduced substantially in Eno4Gt/Gt mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. Sperm from Eno4Gt/Gt mice had a coiled flagellum and a disorganized FS. The Gm5506 gene encodes a protein identical to ENO1 and also is transcribed at a low level in testis. We conclude that ENO4 is required for normal assembly of the FS and provides most of the enolase activity in sperm, and that Eno1 and/or Gm5506 may encode a minor portion of the enolase activity in sperm.
    Biology of Reproduction 02/2013; 88(4). DOI:10.1095/biolreprod.112.107128 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Micromotors and nanomotors are an emerging research field that aims at achieving locomotion on the microscale for a variety of applications such as drug delivery, single cell manipulation, microsensors and lab-on-a-chip devices, just to point out a few. The enthusiastic development of hybrid micromotors harnessing biological power sources for physiologically compatible nano/microdevices has recently brought a lot of attention to the international research community that is looking for a solution for the actuation and locomotion on the microscale. This article describes the potential of sperm-driven micro-bio-robots in the biomedical field such as drug delivery or single cell manipulation. Herein, a specific potential of the sperm-driven micro-bio-robot is described that might have impact on the development of assisted reproductive technologies.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 05/2014; DOI:10.1517/17425247.2014.924502 · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maintaining activity of enzymes tethered to solid interfaces remains a major challenge in developing hybrid organic-inorganic devices. In nature, mammalian spermatozoa have overcome this design challenge by having glycolytic enzymes with specialized targeting domains that enable them to function while tethered to a cytoskeletal element. As a step toward designing a hybrid organic-inorganic ATP-generating system, we implemented a biomimetic site-specific immobilization strategy to tether two glycolytic enzymes representing different functional enzyme families: triose phosphoisomerase (TPI; an isomerase) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS; an oxidoreductase). We then evaluated the activities of these enzymes in comparison to when they were tethered via classical carboxyl-amine crosslinking. Both enzymes show similar surface binding regardless of immobilization method. Remarkably, specific activities for both enzymes were significantly higher when tethered using the biomimetic, site-specific immobilization approach. Using this biomimetic approach, we tethered both enzymes to a single surface and demonstrated their function in series in both forward and reverse directions. Again, the activities in series were significantly higher in both directions when the enzymes were coupled using this biomimetic approach versus carboxyl-amine binding. Our results suggest that biomimetic, site-specific immobilization can provide important functional advantages over chemically specific, but non-oriented attachment, an important strategic insight given the growing interest in recapitulating entire biological pathways on hybrid organic-inorganic devices.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e61434. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0061434 · 3.53 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 5, 2014