In vivo generation of thick, vascularized hepatic tissue from collagen hydrogel-based hepatic units.
ABSTRACT In vivo engineering of hepatic tissue based on primary hepatocytes offers new perspectives for the treatment of liver diseases. However, generation of thick, three-dimensional liver tissue has been limited by the lack of vasculature in the tissue-engineered constructs. Here, we used collagen hydrogel as a matrix to generate engineered hepatic units to reconstitute three-dimensional, vascularized hepatic tissue in vivo. Hepatocytes harvested from Sprague-Dawley rats were mixed with liquid type I collagen, concentrated Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (2 x), and hepatocyte maintenance medium to create hepatocyte/collagen hydrogel constructs. The constructs were then dissociated into cylindrical hepatic units (diameter/height: 2000-4000 microm/500-1000 microm). Stacking of hepatic units under the subcutaneous space resulted in significant cell engraftment, with the formation of large fused hepatic system (more than 0.5 cm thickness) containing blood vessels. In contrast, only less cell engraftment could be achieved when hepatocytes were transplanted in a manner of whole constructs. Functional maintenance of the engineered hepatic tissue was confirmed by the expression of liver-specific mRNA and proteins. The engineered hepatic tissue has the ability to respond to the regenerative stimulus. In conclusion, large hepatic tissue containing blood vessels could be engineered in vivo by merging small hepatic units. This approach for tissue engineering is simple and represents an efficient way to engineer hepatic tissue in vivo.
- SourceAvailable from: centerspan.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte transplantation using three-dimensional matrices is under investigation as an alternative therapy for several liver diseases. For sufficient transplantation results hepatotrophic stimulation is necessary. We investigated the stimulatory effect of cotransplanted pancreatic islets in different ratios. Lewis rats were used as donors and recipients. A portocaval shunt (group A) or sham operation (groups B-G) was performed 1 week before hepatocyte transplantation. Four polyvinyl-alcohol matrices each containing 1.25 x 10(7) hepatocytes (groups A and B) or 1.25 x 10(7) hepatocytes and 125 (C), 250 (D), 500 (E), or 750 (F) islets were implanted between small bowel mesenteric leaves. In group G, medium soaked matrices were implanted. One month after implantation, specimens were harvested and investigated using albumin-RNA in situ hybridization, and insulin, glucagon, and bromodesoxy uridine immunohistochemistry. The hepatocyte area was assessed using image analysis. Hepatocyte area and proliferation ratio increased depending on the number of cotransplanted islets with a peak at 40 islets per 1 million hepatocytes (group E). Cotransplantation of islets in higher concentrations did not further increase hepatocyte area or proliferation ratio. Hepatocytes in all groups expressed albumin RNA at normal transcription levels as compared to standard liver sections. Islets displayed insulin and glucagon in physiological distribution. Three-dimensional matrices provide a sufficient environment for transplanted hepatocytes and islets. The hepatotrophic effect of cotransplanted islets is comparable to portocaval shunting and has a saturation limit at 40 islets per 1 million hepatocytes. For further application of islet cotransplantation, this ratio seems to be preferable.Transplantation 08/1999; 68(2):272-9. · 3.78 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The conception and animal modeling of hepatocyte transplantation along with a partial listing of human hepatocyte infusions over the last 13 years have been detailed in authoritative reviews. However, to adequately best represent the worldwide effort of moving from highly successful clinical solid liver transplants "back to" isolated hepatocyte therapy requires repeating important concepts with explanations of how or why not animal experimental data translate to human experience. This overview summarizes 78 human clinical hepatocyte transplant experiences authenticated by the authors. The human cell infusion experiences are categorized by liver disease treated (metabolic, chronic, and acute liver failure), and these are accompanied by seminal in vitro and in vivo experimental data.Transplantation 09/2006; 82(4):441-9. · 3.78 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The embryonic role of endothelial cells and nascent vessels in promoting organogenesis, prior to vascular function, is unclear. We find that early endothelial cells in mouse embryos surround newly specified hepatic endoderm and delimit the mesenchymal domain into which the liver bud grows. In flk-1 mutant embryos, which lack endothelial cells, hepatic specification occurs, but liver morphogenesis fails prior to mesenchyme invasion. We developed an embryo tissue explant system that permits liver bud vasculogenesis and show that in the absence of endothelial cells, or when the latter are inhibited, there is a selective defect in hepatic outgrowth. We conclude that vasculogenic endothelial cells and nascent vessels are critical for the earliest stages of organogenesis, prior to blood vessel function.Science 11/2001; 294(5542):559-63. · 31.03 Impact Factor