Close mimicry of lung surfactant protein B by ���clicked��� dimers of helical, cationic peptoids

Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 N. Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3100, USA.
Biopolymers (Impact Factor: 2.39). 01/2009; 92(6):538-53. DOI: 10.1002/bip.21309
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A family of peptoid dimers developed to mimic SP-B is presented, where two amphipathic, cationic helices are linked by an achiral octameric chain. SP-B is a vital therapeutic protein in lung surfactant replacement therapy, but its large-scale isolation or chemical synthesis is impractical. Enhanced biomimicry of SP-B's disulfide-bonded structure has been previously attempted via disulfide-mediated dimerization of SP-B(1-25) and other peptide mimics, which improved surface activity relative to the monomers. Herein, the effects of disulfide- or "click"-mediated (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition) dimerization, as well as linker chemistry, on the lipid-associated surfactant activity of a peptoid monomer are described. Results revealed that the 'clicked' peptoid dimer enhanced in vitro surface activity in a DPPC:POPG:PA lipid film relative to its disulfide-bonded and monomeric counterparts in both surface balance and pulsating bubble surfactometry studies. On the pulsating bubble surfactometer, the film containing the "clicked" peptoid dimer outperformed all presented peptoid monomers and dimers, and two SP-B derived peptides, attaining an adsorbed surface tension of 22 mN m(-1), and maximum and minimum cycling values of 42 mN m(-1) and near-zero, respectively.

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Available from: Shannon Servoss, Feb 12, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Lung surfactant protein B (SP-B) is required for proper surface activity of pulmonary surfactant. In model lung surfactant lipid systems composed of saturated and unsaturated lipids, the unsaturated lipids are removed from the film at high compression. It is thought that SP-B helps anchor these lipids closely to the monolayer in three-dimensional cylindrical structures termed "nanosilos" seen by atomic force microscopy imaging of deposited monolayers at high surface pressures. Here we explore the role of the SP-B NH(2) terminus in the formation and stability of these cylindrical structures, specifically the distribution of lipid stack height, width, and density with four SP-B truncation peptides: SP-B 1-25, SP-B 9-25, SP-B 11-25, and SP-B 1-25Nflex (prolines 2 and 4 substituted with alanine). The first nine amino acids, termed the insertion sequence and the interface seeking tryptophan residue 9, are shown to stabilize the formation of nanosilos while an increase in the insertion sequence flexibility (SP-B 1-25Nflex) may improve peptide functionality. This provides a functional understanding of the insertion sequence beyond anchoring the protein to the two-dimensional membrane lining the lung, as it also stabilizes formation of nanosilos, creating reversible repositories for fluid lipids at high compression. In lavaged, surfactant-deficient rats, instillation of a mixture of SP-B 1-25 (as a monomer or dimer) and synthetic lung lavage lipids quickly improved oxygenation and dynamic compliance, whereas SP-B 11-25 surfactants showed oxygenation and dynamic compliance values similar to that of lipids alone, demonstrating a positive correlation between formation of stable, but reversible, nanosilos and in vivo efficacy.
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