Intraperiaqueductal gray glycine and D-serine exert dual effects on rostral ventromedial medulla ON- and OFF-cell activity and thermoceptive threshold in the rat.
ABSTRACT We have studied the involvement of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) glycine site and the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VL-PAG) on nociceptive behavior (tail flick) and pain-related changes on neuronal activity in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Glycine or D-serine increased the tail-flick latency, reduced OFF-cell pause, and delayed its onset and increased the time between the onset of the OFF-cell pause and the tail withdrawal. Conversely, they decreased the ongoing activity of the ON cell, the tail-flick-induced ON-cell firing, whereas they delayed the onset of increased tail-flick-induced ON-cell firing. Also, glycine or D-serine reduced the interval between the onset of the increased ON-cell firing and tail withdrawal. Whereas 7-Cl-kynurenic acid (7-Cl-KYN) prevented such effects, strychnine did not do so. A higher dose of 7-Cl-KYN or strychnine was per se able to reduce or increase tail-flick latency and increase or reduce ON-cell activities, respectively. A higher dose of glycine was hyperalgesic in the presence of 7-Cl-KYN, whereas such an effect was prevented by strychnine. These data suggest 1) a dual role of glycine in producing hyperalgesia or analgesia by stimulating the GlyR or the NMDARs within the VL-PAG, respectively; 2) consistently that RVM ON and OFF cells display opposite firing patterns to the stimulation of the VL-PAG NMDAR glycine site and GlyR activation; and 3) a tonic role of these receptors within the VL-PAG-RVM antinociceptive descending pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Migraine is one of the commonest neurological disorders. Despite intensive research, its exact pathomechanism is still not fully understood and effective therapy is not always available. One of the key molecules involved in migraine is glutamate, whose receptors are found on the first-, second- and third-order trigeminal neurones and are also present in the migraine generators, including the dorsal raphe nucleus, nucleus raphe magnus, locus coeruleus and periaqueductal grey matter. Glutamate receptors are important in cortical spreading depression, which may be the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. The kynurenine metabolites, endogenous tryptophan metabolites, include kynurenic acid (KYNA), which exerts a blocking effect on ionotropic glutamate and α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Thus, KYNA and its derivatives may act as modulators at various levels of the pathomechanism of migraine. They can give rise to antinociceptive effects at the periphery, in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and may also act on migraine generators and cortical spreading depression. The experimental data suggest that KYNA or its derivatives might offer a novel approach to migraine therapy.DNA research: an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 06/2011; 9(2):376-87. · 1.73 Impact Factor