Maternal antibodies to pneumolysin but not to pneumococcal surface protein A delay early pneumococcal carriage in high-risk Papua New Guinean infants.

Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Goroka, Papua New Guinea.
Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI (Impact Factor: 2.37). 09/2009; 16(11):1633-8. DOI: 10.1128/CVI.00247-09
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Immunization of pregnant women can be an efficient strategy to induce early protection in infants in developing countries. Pneumococcal protein-based vaccines may have the capacity to induce pneumococcal serotype-independent protection. To understand the potential of maternal pneumococcal protein-specific antibodies in infants in high-risk areas, we studied the placental transfer of naturally acquired antibodies to pneumolysin (Ply) and pneumococcal surface protein A family 1 and 2 (PspA1 and PspA2) in relation to onset of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in infants in Papua New Guinea (PNG). In this study, 76% of the infants carried Streptococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract within the first month of life, at a median age of 19 days. Maternal and cord blood antibody titers to Ply (rho = 0.824, P < 0.001), PspA1 (rho = 0.746, P < 0.001), and PspA2 (rho = 0.631, P < 0.001) were strongly correlated. Maternal pneumococcal carriage (hazard ratio [HR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 5.39) and younger maternal age (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00) were independent risk factors for early carriage, while higher cord Ply-specific antibody titers predicted a significantly delayed onset (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.00) and cord PspA1-specific antibodies a significantly younger onset of carriage in PNG infants (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.40). Maternal vaccination with a pneumococcal protein-based vaccine should be considered as a strategy to protect high-risk infants against pneumococcal disease by reducing carriage risks in both mothers and infants.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neonates have an immature immune system, which cannot adequately protect against infectious diseases. Early in life, immune protection is accomplished by maternal antibodies transferred from mother to offspring. However, decaying maternal antibodies inhibit vaccination as is exemplified by the inhibition of seroconversion after measles vaccination. This phenomenon has been described in both human and veterinary medicine and is independent of the type of vaccine being used. This review will discuss the use of animal models for vaccine research. I will review clinical solutions for inhibition of vaccination by maternal antibodies, and the testing and development of potentially effective vaccines. These are based on new mechanistic insight about the inhibitory mechanism of maternal antibodies. Maternal antibodies inhibit the generation of antibodies whereas the T cell response is usually unaffected. B cell inhibition is mediated through a cross-link between B cell receptor (BCR) with the Fcγ-receptor IIB by a vaccine-antibody complex. In animal experiments, this inhibition can be partially overcome by injection of a vaccine-specific monoclonal IgM antibody. IgM stimulates the B cell directly through cross-linking the BCR via complement protein C3d and antigen to the complement receptor 2 (CR2) signaling complex. In addition, it was shown that interferon alpha binds to the CD21 chain of CR2 as well as the interferon receptor and that this dual receptor usage drives B cell responses in the presence of maternal antibodies. In lieu of immunizing the infant, the concept of maternal immunization as a strategy to protect neonates has been proposed. This approach would still not solve the question of how to immunize in the presence of maternal antibodies but would defer the time of infection to an age where infection might not have such a detrimental outcome as in neonates. I will review successful examples and potential challenges of implementing this concept.
    Frontiers in Immunology 09/2014; 5:446. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00446
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae produces the pore-forming toxin pneumolysin (PLY), which is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family of toxins. The CDCs recognize and bind the 3β-hydroxyl group of cholesterol at the cell surface, which initiates membrane pore formation. The cholesterol transport lipoproteins, which carry cholesterol in their outer monolayer, are potential off-pathway binding targets for the CDCs and are present at significant levels in the serum and the interstitial spaces of cells. Herein we show that cholesterol carried specifically by the ApoB-100-containing lipoprotein particles (CH-ApoB-100) in the mouse, but not that carried by human or guinea pig particles, is a potent inhibitor of the PLY pore-forming mechanism. Cholesterol present in the outer monolayer of mouse ApoB-100 particles is recognized and bound by PLY, which stimulates premature assembly of the PLY oligomeric complex thereby inactivating PLY. These studies further suggest that the vast difference in the inhibitory capacity of mouse CH-ApoB-100 and that of the human and the guinea pig is due to differences in the presentation of cholesterol in the outer monolayer of their ApoB-100 particles. Therefore mouse CH-ApoB-100 represents a significant innate CDC inhibitor that is absent in humans, which may underestimate the contribution of CDCs to human disease when utilizing mouse models of disease.
    PLoS Pathogens 09/2014; 10(9):e1004353. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004353 · 8.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: New vaccines containing highly conserved Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins such as pneumolysin toxoid (dPly) and histidine-triad protein D (PhtD) are being developed to provide broader protection against pneumococcal disease. This study evaluated the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of different pneumococcal protein-containing formulations in adults. In a phase I double-blind study ( NCT00707798), healthy adults (18-40 years) were randomized (1:2:2:2:2:2:2) to receive two doses of one of six investigational vaccine formulations 2 months apart, or a single dose of the control 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PPV; Pneumovax23™, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) followed by placebo. The investigational formulations contained dPly alone (10 or 30μg), or both dPly and PhtD (10 or 30μg each) alone or combined with the polysaccharide conjugates of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV; Synflorix™, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines). Two groups primed with a formulation containing dPly and PhtD (10 or 30μg each) continued to the follow-up phase II study (NCT00896064), in which they received a booster dose at 5-9 months after primary vaccination. Of 156 enrolled and vaccinated adults, 146 completed the primary immunization and 43 adults received a booster dose. During primary and booster vaccination, for any formulation, ≤8.9% of doses were followed by grade 3 solicited local or general adverse events. No fever >39.5°C (oral temperature) was reported. Unsolicited adverse events considered causally related to vaccination were reported following ≤33.3% of investigational vaccine doses. No serious adverse events were reported for adults receiving investigational vaccine formulations. Formulations containing dPly with or without PhtD were immunogenic for these antigens; polysaccharide conjugate-containing formulations were also immunogenic for those 10 polysaccharides. Investigational vaccine formulations containing dPly and PhtD were well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to healthy adults as standalone protein vaccine or combined with PHiD-CV conjugates.
    Vaccine 03/2014; 32(50). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.02.052 · 3.49 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014