Article

The reversible developmental unipotency of germ cells in chicken.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea.
Reproduction 09/2009; 139(1):113-9. DOI: 10.1530/REP-09-0265
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We recently developed bimodal germline chimera production approaches by transfer of primordial germ cells (PGCs) or embryonic germ cells (EGCs) into embryos and by transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) or germline stem cells (GSCs) into adult testes. This study was undertaken to investigate the reversible developmental unipotency of chicken germ cells using our established germline chimera production systems. First, we transferred freshly isolated SSCs from adult testis or in vitro cultured GSCs into stage X and stage 14-16 embryos, and we found that these transferred SSCs/GSCs could migrate to the recipient embryonic gonads. Of the 527 embryos that received SSCs or GSCs, 135 yielded hatchlings. Of 17 sexually mature males (35.3%), six were confirmed as germline chimeras through testcross analysis resulting in an average germline transmission efficiency of 1.3%. Second, PGCs/EGCs, germ cells isolated from embryonic gonads were transplanted into adult testes. The EGC transplantation induced germline transmission, whereas the PGC transplantation did not. The germline transmission efficiency was 12.5 fold higher (16.3 vs 1.3%) in EGC transplantation into testis (EGCs to adult testis) than that in SSC/GSC transfer into embryos (testicular germ cells to embryo stage). In conclusion, chicken germ cells from different developmental stages can (de)differentiate into gametes even after the germ cell developmental clock is set back or ahead. Use of germ cell reversible unipotency might improve the efficiency of germ cell-mediated germline transmission.

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    • "Recently, germ cell transplantation techniques have also been explored in chickens and fish. In the case of the domestic chicken, techniques to transplant spermatogonial stem cells or dispersed testis tissue into immune-competent juvenile or adult chickens have been developed (Lee et al., 2006; Trefil et al., 2006, 2010; Jung et al., 2010). The presence of donor-derived genes in the offspring indicated the successful colonization of donor germ cells in the recipient testis without immune rejection. "
    Animal reproduction 01/2013;
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    • "The transposon-mediated approach can be widely adapted to transgenesis in other avian species without running risks such as using viral vectors. Other germline-competent cells, specifically blastodermal cells, embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryonic germ (EG) cells, and spermatogonial cells, have also been used to transmit manipulated cells into the next generation, but the efficiency of germline transmission is generally too low compared with PGC techniques [21] [37] [41] [42]. 4. Specific genetic modifications in the chicken genome "
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