Predictors of social anxiety in an opioid dependent sample and a control sample

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
Journal of anxiety disorders (Impact Factor: 2.68). 09/2009; 24(1):49-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.08.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Compared to other mental health problems, social anxiety is under-acknowledged amongst opioid dependent populations. This study aimed to assess levels of social anxiety and identify its predictors in an opioid dependent sample and a matched control group. Opioid dependent participants (n=1385) and controls (n=417) completed the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and a diagnostic interview. Regression analyses were used to test a range of predictors of social anxiety. Opioid dependent cases had higher mean scores on both scales compared to controls. Predictors of social anxiety centred on emotional rejection in childhood, either by parents or peers. For opioid dependent cases, but not controls, lifetime non-opioid substance dependence (cannabis, sedatives, and tobacco) was associated with higher levels of social anxiety. However, much of the variance in social anxiety remains unexplained for this population.

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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a pathologic response to severe stress, is a common co-morbid disorder in substance-dependent individuals. Evidence from twin studies suggests that PTSD is moderately heritable. Genetic association studies to date have reported a limited number of replicated findings. We conducted a candidate gene association study in trauma-exposed individuals within the Comorbidity and Trauma Study's sample (1343 heroin-dependent cases and 406 controls from economically disadvantaged neighborhoods). After data cleaning, the 1430 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) retained for analyses provided coverage of 72 candidate genes and included additional SNPs for which association was previously reported as well as 30 ancestry-informative markers. We found a functional DRD2 promoter polymorphism (rs12364283) to be most highly associated with PTSD liability [odds ratio (OR) 1.65 (1.27-2.15); P = 1.58 × 10(-4) ]; however, this association was not significant, with a stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The top hits include SNPs from other dopaminergic system genes: DRD2 DRD3, TH and DBH. Additional analyses revealed that the association involving rs12364283 is largely limited to amphetamine-dependent individuals. Substantial risk is observed in amphetamine-dependent individuals, with at least one copy of this SNP [OR 2.86 (1.92-4.27); P = 2.6 × 10(-7) ]. Further analyses do not support extensive mediation of PTSD risk via self-reported impulsivity (BIS total score). These findings suggest roles for impairment in inhibitory control in the pathophysiology of PTSD and raise questions about stimulant use in certain populations (e.g. those in combat).
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    ABSTRACT: Emerging prospective work suggests that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may be at particular risk for developing substance use disorders (SUD). Yet, little is known about why this may be so. Most research has utilized existing theories of substance use (e.g. tension reduction-based theories) to understand SAD-SUD relations. However, these theories do not address why individuals with social anxiety, in particular, experience such high rates of substance-related problems. A possible explanation may lie in the nature of social anxiety itself, which is characterized not only by chronically elevated negative affective states, but by low positive affect, fear of scrutiny, and social avoidance. These aspects of social anxiety may work in concert to place these especially vulnerable individuals at risk for SUD. The current paper presents a biopsychosocial model of SAD-SUD comorbidity that focuses on several specific facets of social anxiety that may be especially related to SUD risk. The utility of this model is evaluated via a review of the literature on the relations between SAD and substance-related behaviors.
    Depression and Anxiety 03/2013; 30(3). DOI:10.1002/da.22032 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CONTEXT The genetic contribution to liability for opioid dependence is well established; identification of the responsible genes has proved challenging. OBJECTIVE To examine association of 1430 candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with heroin dependence, reporting here only the 71 SNPs in the chromosome 11 gene cluster (NCAM1, TTC12, ANKK1, DRD2) that include the strongest observed associations. DESIGN Case-control genetic association study that included 2 control groups (lacking an established optimal control group). SETTING Semistructured psychiatric interviews. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1459 Australian cases ascertained from opioid replacement therapy clinics, 531 neighborhood controls ascertained from economically disadvantaged areas near opioid replacement therapy clinics, and 1495 unrelated Australian Twin Registry controls not dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs selected from a twin and family sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Lifetime heroin dependence. RESULTS Comparison of cases with Australian Twin Registry controls found minimal evidence of association for all chromosome 11 cluster SNPs (P ≥ .01); a similar comparison with neighborhood controls revealed greater differences (P ≥ 1.8 × 10-4). Comparing cases (n = 1459) with the subgroup of neighborhood controls not dependent on illicit drugs (n = 340), 3 SNPs were significantly associated (correcting for multiple testing): ANKK1 SNP rs877138 (most strongly associated; odds ratio = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.32-1.92; P = 9.7 × 10-7), ANKK1 SNP rs4938013, and TTC12 SNP rs7130431. A similar pattern of association was observed when comparing illicit drug-dependent (n = 191) and nondependent (n = 340) neighborhood controls, suggesting that liability likely extends to nonopioid illicit drug dependence. Aggregate heroin dependence risk associated with 2 SNPs, rs877138 and rs4492854 (located in NCAM1), varied more than 4-fold (P = 2.7 × 10-9 for the risk-associated linear trend). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide further evidence of association for chromosome 11 gene cluster SNPs with substance dependence, including extension of liability to illicit drug dependence. Our findings highlight the necessity of considering drug exposure history when selecting control groups for genetic investigations of illicit drug dependence.
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