Burbach GJ, Heinzerling L, Edenharter G, et al. GA2LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité Universitätsmedizin-Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Allergy (Impact Factor: 6.03). 10/2009; 64(10):1507-15. DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02089.x
Source: PubMed


Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance was used to determine the clinical relevance of sensitizations against the 18 most frequent inhalant allergens in Europe. The study population consisted of patients referred to one of the 17 allergy centres in 14 European countries (n = 3034, median age = 33 years). The aim of the study was to assess the clinical relevance of positive skin prick test reactions against inhalant allergens considering the predominating type of symptoms in a pan-European population of patients presenting with suspected allergic disease.
Clinical relevance of skin prick tests was recorded with regard to patient history and optional additional tests. A putative correlation between sensitization and allergic disease was assessed using logistic regression analysis.
While an overall rate of >or=60% clinically relevant sensitizations was observed in all countries, a differential distribution of clinically relevant sensitizations was demonstrated depending on type of allergen and country where the prick test was performed. Furthermore, a significant correlation between the presence of allergic disease and the number of sensitizations was demonstrated.
This study strongly emphasizes the importance of evaluating the clinical relevance of positive skin prick tests and calls for further studies, which may, ultimately, help increase the positive predictive value of allergy testing.

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    • "However, none of these are “all or nothing” factors. Burbach et al. examined data from 3034 patients in a multicentre, open, pan-European GA2LEN study [32] and distinguished between the standardized sensitization rate (SSR, i.e. all positive SPTs) and the clinically relevant sensitization rate (CCR, in which patients were asked whether they had symptoms in response to exposure to the allergen). The SSR to a particular allergen extract varied markedly from one country to another. "
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    ABSTRACT: The type of allergic sensitization is of central importance in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic diseases. At least 10% of the general population (and more than 50% of patients consulting for respiratory allergies) are polysensitized. Here, we review the recent literature on (i) the concepts of polysensitization, paucisensitization, co-sensitization, co-recognition, cross-reactivity, cross-sensitization, and polyallergy, (ii) the prevalence of polysensitization and (iii) the relationships between sensitization status, disease severity and treatment strategies. In molecular terms, clinical polysensitization can be divided into cross-sensitization (also known as cross-reactivity, in which the same IgE molecule binds to several allergens with common structural features) and co-sensitization (the simultaneous presence of different IgEs binding to allergens that may not necessarily have common structural features). There is a strong overall association between sensitization in skin prick tests and total IgE values but there is debate as to whether IgE thresholds are useful guides to the presence or absence of clinical symptoms in individual cases. Molecular information from component-resolved techniques appears to be of value for diagnosis and treatment decisions. Polysensitization develops over time and is a risk factor for respiratory allergy (being associated with disease severity) and therefore has clinical relevance for treatment decisions. The subterm polysensitization has been defined as polysensitization to between two and four allergens. Polyallergy is defined as clinically confirmed allergy to two or more allergens. Single-allergen grass pollen allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is safe and effective in polysensitized patients, whereas multi-allergen AIT requires more supporting evidence. Given that AIT may be more efficacious in moderate-to-severe disease than in mild disease, polysensitization could be an indication for this type of treatment. There is a need for flowcharts or decision trees for choosing the allergens for AIT in polysensitized patients and polyallergic patients.
    05/2014; 4(1):16. DOI:10.1186/2045-7022-4-16
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    • "In other studies, atmospheric pollen count were found to be positively correlated with allergic symptoms, drug consumption for allergic rhinitis and/or conjunctivitis [9-12], emergency visits because of asthma [22-26], and hospitalizations because of asthma [27-29]. However, not only sensitization rates but also the severity of reactions to the same pollen concentrations may vary between different regions [30]. Thus, it is important to investigate these patterns in different populations. "
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    ABSTRACT: An association between pollen count (Poaceae) and symptoms is well known, but to a lesser degree the importance of priming and lag effects. Also, threshold levels for changes in symptom severity need to be validated. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between pollen counts, symptoms and health related quality of life (HRQL), and to validate thresholds levels, useful in public pollen warnings. Children aged 7--18 with grass pollen allergy filled out a symptom diary during the pollen season for nose, eyes and lung symptoms, as well as a HRQL questionnaire every week. Pollen counts were monitored using a volumetric spore trap. 89 (91%) of the included 98 children completed the study. There was a clear association between pollen count, symptom severity and HRQL during the whole pollen season, but no difference in this respect between early and late pollen season. There was a lag effect of 1--3 days after pollen exposure except for lung symptoms. We found only two threshold levels, at 30 and 80 pollen grains/m3 for the total symptom score, not three as is used today. The nose and eyes reacted to low doses, but for the lung symptoms, symptom strength did hardly change until 50 pollen grains/m3. Grass pollen has an effect on symptoms and HRQL, lasting 2--5 days after exposure. Symptoms from the lungs appear to have higher threshold levels than the eyes and the nose. Overall symptom severity does not appear to change during the course of season. Threshold levels need to be revised. We suggest a traffic light model for public pollen warnings directed to children, where green signifies "no problem", yellow signifies "can be problems, especially if you are highly sensitive" and red signifies "alert -- take action".
    06/2013; 3(1):19. DOI:10.1186/2045-7022-3-19
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    • "SPT results should be appropriately interpreted based on clinical symptoms, medical history, and, where necessary, other test results (specific IgE antibody measurements) in order to assess possible allergy to a specific allergen. The probability of a given sensitization to be clinically relevant depends on the type of allergen and country where the patient lives [4]. The clinical relevance of any detected sensitization should be determined by an allergologist after taking a complete history and performing a physical examination. "
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    ABSTRACT: Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature.The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 -- 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal >=3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana), alder (Alnus incana), birch (Betula alba), plane (Platanus vulgaris), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense), Olive (Olea europaea), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), Alternaria alternata (tenuis), Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica).Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.
    02/2013; 3(1):3. DOI:10.1186/2045-7022-3-3
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