Accelerated closure of skin wounds in mice deficient in the homeobox gene Msx2

Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Wound Repair and Regeneration (Impact Factor: 2.77). 09/2009; 17(5):639-48. DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-475X.2009.00535.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Differences in cellular competence offer an explanation for the differences in the healing capacity of tissues of various ages and conditions. The homeobox family of genes plays key roles in governing cellular competence. Of these, we hypothesize that Msx2 is a strong candidate regulator of competence in skin wound healing because it is expressed in the skin during fetal development in the stage of scarless healing, affects postnatal digit regeneration, and is reexpressed transiently during postnatal skin wound repair. To address whether Msx2 affects cellular competence in injury repair, 3 mm full-thickness excisional wounds were created on the back of C.Cg-Msx2(tm1Rilm)/Mmcd (Msx2 null) mice and the healing pattern was compared with that of the wild type mice. The results show that Msx2 null mice exhibited faster wound closure with accelerated reepithelialization plus earlier appearance of keratin markers for differentiation and an increased level of smooth muscle actin and tenascin in the granulation tissue. In vitro, keratinocytes of Msx2 null mice exhibit increased cell migration and the fibroblasts show stronger collagen gel contraction. Thus, our results suggest that Msx2 regulates the cellular competence of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in skin injury repair.

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    ABSTRACT: Nonhealing diabetic wounds are associated with impaired macrophage (Mf) function. Leukocytes and platelets (PLT) play crucial roles in wound healing by poorly understood mechanisms. Here we report the identification and characterization of the maresin-like(L) mediators 14,22-dihydroxy-docosa-4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,19Z-hexaenoic acids, 14S,22-diHDHA (maresin-L1), and 14R,22-diHDHA (maresin-L2) that are produced by leukocytes and PLT and involved in wound healing. We show that 12-lipoxygenase-initiated 14S-hydroxylation or cytochrome P450 catalyzed 14R-hydroxylation and P450-initiated ω(22)-hydroxylation are required for maresin-L biosynthesis. Maresin-L treatment restores reparative functions of diabetic Mfs, suggesting that maresin-Ls act as autocrine/paracrine factors responsible for, at least in part, the reparative functions of leukocytes and PLT in wounds. Additionally, maresin-L ameliorates Mf inflammatory activation and has the potential to suppress the chronic inflammation in diabetic wounds caused by activation of Mfs. These findings provide initial insights into maresin-L biosynthesis and mechanism of action and potentially offer a therapeutic option for better treatment of diabetic wounds.
    Chemistry & Biology 09/2014; 21(10). DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.06.010 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of macrophages (MΦs) in diabetic wounds impairs the healing. MΦs produce anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving neuroprotectin/protectin D1 (NPD1/PD1, 10R,17S-dihydroxy-docosa-4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid); however, little is known about endogenous NPD1 biosynthesis by MΦs and the actions of NPD1 on diabetic MΦ functions in diabetic wound healing. We used an excisional skin wound model of diabetic mice, MΦ depletion, MΦs isolated from diabetic mice, and mass spectrometry-based targeted lipidomics to study the time course progression of NPD1 levels in wounds, the roles of MΦs in NPD1 biosynthesis, and NPD1 action on diabetic MΦ inflammatory activities. We also investigated the healing, innervation, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress in diabetic wounds treated with NPD1 or NPD1-modulated MΦs from diabetic mice. Injury induced endogenous NPD1 biosynthesis in wounds, but diabetes impeded NPD1 formation. NPD1 was mainly produced by MΦs. NPD1 enhanced wound healing and innervation in diabetic mice, and promoted MΦs functions that accelerated these processes. The underlying mechanisms for these actions of NPD1 or NPD1-modulated MΦs involved (a) attenuating MΦ inflammatory activities and chronic inflammation and oxidative stress after acute inflammation in diabetic wound; and (b) increasing MΦ production of IL10 and hepatocyte growth factor. Taken together, NPD1 appears to be a MΦs-produced factor that accelerates diabetic wound healing, and promotes MΦ pro-healing functions in diabetic wounds. Decreased NPD1 production in diabetic wound is associated with impaired healing. This study identifies a new molecular target that might be useful in development of more effective therapeutics based on NPD1 and syngeneic diabetic MΦs for treatment of diabetic wounds.
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