Cutting Edge: Contribution of Lung-Resident T Cell Proliferation to the Overall Magnitude of the Antigen-Specific CD8 T Cell Response in the Lungs following Murine Influenza Virus Infection

Department of Pathology and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 10/2009; 183(7):4177-81. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0901109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Following influenza virus infection, CD8 T cells encounter mature, Ag-bearing dendritic cells within the draining lymph nodes and undergo activation, programmed proliferation, and differentiation to effector cells before migrating to the lungs to mediate viral clearance. However, it remains unclear whether CD8 T cells continue their proliferation after arriving in the lungs. To address this question, we developed a novel, in vivo, dual-label system using intranasal CFSE and BrdU administration to identify virus-specific CD8 T cells that are actively undergoing cell division while in the lungs. With this technique we demonstrate that a high frequency of virus-specific CD8 T cells incorporate BrdU while in the lungs and that this lung-resident proliferation contributes significantly to the magnitude of the Ag-specific CD8 T cell response following influenza virus infection.

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    ABSTRACT: Resident memory T cells (TRM) are broadly defined as a population of T cells, which persist in non-lymphoid sites long-term, do not re-enter the circulation, and are distinct from central memory T cells (TCM) and circulating effector memory T cells (TEM). Recent studies have described populations of TRM cells in the skin, gut, lungs, and nervous tissue. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the specific environment in which the TRM reside can further refine their phenotypical and functional properties. Here, we focus on the TRM cells that develop following respiratory infection and reside in the lungs and the lung airways. Specifically, we will review recent studies that have described some of the requirements for establishment of TRM cells in these tissues, and the defining characteristics of TRM in the lungs and lung airways. With continual bombardment of the respiratory tract by both pathogenic and environmental antigens, dynamic fluctuations in the local milieu including homeostatic resources and niche restrictions can impact TRM longevity. Beyond a comprehensive characterization of lung TRM cells, special attention will be placed on studies, which have defined how the microenvironment of the lung influences memory T cell survival at this site. As memory T cell populations in the lung airways are requisite for protection yet wane numerically over time, developing a comprehensive picture of factors which may influence TRM development and persistence at these sites is important for improving T cell-based vaccine design.
    Frontiers in Immunology 07/2014; 5:320. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00320
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    ABSTRACT: Background It is well established that chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption is associated with increased incidence and disease severity of respiratory infections. Our recent work demonstrates this increase in disease severity to influenza A virus (IAV) infections is due, in part, to a failure to mount a robust IAV-specific CD8 T cell response along with a specific impairment in the ability of these T cells to produce interferon γ (IFNγ). However, the full extent of the lesion in the effector CD8 T cell compartment during chronic EtOH consumption remains unknown.Methods Utilizing the Meadows–Cook murine model of chronic alcohol consumption, mice received EtOH in their drinking water for 8 or 12 weeks. Mice were challenged intranasally with IAV, and the activation and effector functions of IAV-specific CD8 T cells were determined in both the lung-draining lymph nodes (dLN) and lungs.ResultsOur results confirm the defect in IFNγ production; however, the ability of IAV-specific T cells to produce tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) in EtOH-consuming mice remains unaltered. In contrast, EtOH consumption significantly reduces the ability of CD8 T cells to degranulate and kill IAV-specific targets. Finally, our findings suggest the lesion begins during the initial activation of CD8 T cells, as we observe early defects in proliferation in the dLN of IAV-infected, EtOH-consuming mice.Conclusions These findings highlight the previously unrecognized depth of the lesion in the IAV-specific CD8 T cell response during chronic EtOH consumption. Given the important role CD8 T cell immunity plays in control of IAV, these findings may aid in the development of vaccination and/or therapeutic strategies to reverse these defects in the CD8 T cell response and reduce serious disease outcomes associated with IAV infections in alcoholics.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 08/2014; 38(9). DOI:10.1111/acer.12522 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The structured lymphoid tissues are considered the only inductive sites where primary T-cell immune responses occur. The naïve T cells in structured lymphoid tissues, once being primed by antigen-bearing dendritic cells, differentiate into memory T cells and traffic back to the mucosal sites through the bloodstream. Contrary to this belief, here we show that the vaginal type-II mucosa itself, despite the lack of structured lymphoid tissues, can act as an inductive site during primary CD8(+) T-cell immune responses. We provide evidence that the vaginal mucosa supports both the local immune priming of naïve CD8(+) T cells and the local expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, thereby demonstrating a different paradigm for primary mucosal T-cell immune induction.
    Nature Communications 01/2015; 6:6100. DOI:10.1038/ncomms7100 · 10.74 Impact Factor


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