Antioxidants and aging: NMR-based evidence of improved skeletal muscle perfusion and energetics
ABSTRACT We sought to examine the potential role of oxidative stress on skeletal muscle function with advancing age. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to simultaneously assess muscle perfusion (arterial spin labeling) and energetics ((31)P NMR spectroscopy) in the lower leg of young (26 + or - 5 yr, n = 6) and older (70 + or - 5 yr, n = 6) healthy volunteers following the consumption of either placebo (PL) or an oral antioxidant (AO) cocktail (vitamins C and E and alpha-lipoic acid), previously documented to decrease plasma free radical concentration. NMR measurements were made during and after 5 min of moderate intensity (approximately 5 W) plantar flexion exercise. AO administration significantly improved end-exercise perfusion (AO, 50 + or - 5, and PL, 43 + or - 4 ml x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) and postexercise perfusion area under the curve (AO, 1,286 + or - 236, and PL, 866 + or - 144 ml/100 g) in older subjects, whereas AO administration did not alter hemodynamics in the young group. Concomitantly, muscle oxidative capacity (time constant of phosphocreatine recovery, tau) was improved following AO in the older (AO, 43 + or - 1, and PL, 51 + or - 7 s) but not the young (AO, 54 + or - 5, and PL, 48 + or - 7 s) group. These findings support the concept that oxidative stress may be partially responsible for the age-related decline in skeletal muscle perfusion during physical activity and reveal a muscle metabolic reserve capacity in the elderly that is accessible under conditions of improved perfusion.
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ABSTRACT: Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome that is characterized by gradual loss of muscle mass and strength with increasing age. Although the underlying mechanism is still unknown, the contribution of increased oxidative stress in advanced age has been recognized as one of the risk factors of sarcopenia. Thus, eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be a strategy to combat sarcopenia. In this review, we discuss the potential role of vitamin E in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Vitamin E is a lipid soluble vitamin, with potent antioxidant properties and current evidence suggesting a role in the modulation of signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown its possible beneficial effects on aging and age-related diseases. Although there are evidences suggesting an association between vitamin E and muscle health, they are still inconclusive compared to other more extensively studied chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we reviewed the role of vitamin E and its potential protective mechanisms on muscle health based on previous and current in vitro and in vivo studies.07/2014; 2014:16. DOI:10.1155/2014/914853
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ABSTRACT: We recently demonstrated that postmenopausal women have an augmented blood pressure response to voluntary apnea compared to premenopausal women. Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, which may impair cardiovascular function. Restoring physiological responses could have clinical relevance since transient surges in blood pressure are thought to be an important stimulus for end-organ damage in aging and disease. We tested the hypothesis that acute antioxidant infusion improves physiological responses to voluntary apnea in healthy postmenopausal women (n = 8, 64 ± 2 year). We measured beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and brachial artery blood flow velocity (BBFV, Doppler ultrasound) following intravenous infusion of normal saline and ascorbic acid (~3500 mg). Subjects performed maximal voluntary end-expiratory apneas and changes (Δ) from baseline were compared between infusions. The breath hold duration and oxygen saturation nadir were similar between saline (29 ± 6 sec, 94 ± 1%) and ascorbic acid (29 ± 5 sec, 94 ± 1%). Ascorbic acid attenuated the pressor response to voluntary apnea (ΔMAP: 6 ± 2 mmHg) as compared to saline (ΔMAP: 12 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.034) and also attenuated forearm vasoconstriction (ΔBBFV: 4 ± 9 vs. -12 ± 7%, P = 0.049) but did not affect ΔHR. We conclude that ascorbic acid lowers the blood pressure response to voluntary apnea in postmenopausal women by inhibiting vasoconstriction in the limb vasculature. Whether ascorbic acid has similar effects in OSA patients remains to be prospectively tested. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.04/2015; 3(4). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12384
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of age and sex on in vivo mitochondrial function of distinct locomotory muscles, the tibialis anterior (TA) and medial gastrocnemius (MG), of young (Y; 24 ± 3 years) and older (O; 69 ± 4) men (M) and women (W) of similar overall physical activity (PA) was compared. In vivo mitochondrial function was measured using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and PA and physical function were measured in all subjects. Overall PA was similar among the groups, although O (n = 17) had fewer daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (p = 0.001), and slowed physical function (p < 0.05 for all variables), compared with Y (n = 17). In TA, oxidative capacity (V max; mM s(-1)) was higher in O than Y (p < 0.001; Y = 0.90 ± 0.12; O = 1.12 ± 0.18). There was no effect of age in MG (p = 0.5; Y = 0.91 ± 0.17; O = 0.96 ± 0.24), but women had higher oxidative capacity than men (p = 0.007; M = 0.84 ± 0.18; W = 1.03 ± 0.18). In vivo mitochondrial function was preserved in healthy O men and women, despite lower intensity PA and physical function in this group. The extent to which compensatory changes in gait may be responsible for this preservation warrants further investigation. Furthermore, women had higher oxidative capacity in the MG, but not the TA.Journal of the American Aging Association 10/2014; 36(5):9713. DOI:10.1007/s11357-014-9713-5 · 3.45 Impact Factor