Efficacy of human C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate compared with placebo in acute hereditary angioedema attacks
ABSTRACT Hereditary angioedema caused by C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder.
To compare the efficacy of pasteurized C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate (Berinert, CSL Behring) at intravenous doses of 10 or 20 U/kg body weight with placebo in the treatment of single, acute abdominal or facial attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema.
This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 125 patients with type I or II hereditary angioedema. The primary outcome was time from start of treatment to onset of symptom relief. Secondary outcomes were time to complete resolution, proportion of patients with worsened intensity of angioedema symptoms between 2 and 4hours after treatment, and number of vomiting episodes within 4 hours.
Median time to onset of relief was significantly shorter with C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate at a dose of 20 U/kg than with placebo (0.5 vs 1.5 hours; P = .0025), whereas with 10 U/kg, the time to onset of relief was only slightly shorter than with placebo (1.2 vs 1.5 hours; P = .2731). Compared with placebo, the reduction in time to onset of relief was greatest for severe attacks (0.5 vs 13.5 hours). The secondary outcomes consistently supported the efficacy of the 20 U/kg dose. C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate was safe and well tolerated. No seroconversions were observed for HIV, hepatitis virus, or human B19 virus.
C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate given intravenously at a dose of 20 U/kg is an effective and safe treatment for acute abdominal and facial attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema, with a rapid onset of relief.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) therapy is currently administered to patients with C1-inh deficiency through intravenous injections. The possibility of subcutaneous administration is currently being explored since this would alleviate need for hospitalization and increase mobility and well-being of patients. Recently, it was observed in pigs that C1-inh indeed can effectively be applied by subcutaneous injection. For studies on the effectiveness of C1-inh therapy for other indications than acquired and hereditary angioedema, rats are commonly used as model animal. For rats, however, subcutaneous C1-inh administration has never been investigated. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous C1-inh administration in rats. Materials and methods: Three boli of 100 U/kg human plasma-derived C1-inh were administered to Wistar rats on three consecutive days through subcutaneous injection or intravenous injection. Blood samples were collected from the tail veins 3, 4.5 or 6 h after C1-inh administration for measurement of C1-inh plasma levels. Antigen and activity levels of C1-inh of each plasma sample were determined by means of a specific ELISA. Results: For both C1-inh antigen and C1-inh activity, 21- to 119-fold higher plasma levels were measured after intravenous administration compared with subcutaneous administration. Subcutaneous administration also resulted in C1-inh plasma levels that were less stable and with decreased relative activity. Conclusion: These combined results indicate that in rats, subcutaneous injections in the present formulation are not effective as alternative administration route for C1-inh.Drug Delivery 11/2013; DOI:10.3109/10717544.2013.853211 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although treatment with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate is well established for hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks in general, data that assess its efficacy for cutaneous attack treatment are sparse. To assess efficacy of plasma-derived, nanofiltered C1-INH concentrate for cutaneous attack treatment by comparing treated attacks from the uncontrolled I.M.P.A.C.T.2 study with historical data for untreated attacks. Cutaneous attack data from patients with HAE who were treated for cutaneous edema with 20 IU/kg body weight C1-INH concentrate in the uncontrolled I.M.P.A.C.T.2 study (38 patients) were compared with data from untreated patients from an historical data base (46 patients) and included subset analyses for facial edema (treated group, 21 patients; untreated group, 33 patients) and peripheral edema (30 patients in each group). Average attack duration (AAD) per patient was the efficacy end point used to compare treated and untreated patients. Differences were assessed with a Wilcoxon test (primary analysis) and a log-rank test; AAD per patient was analyzed descriptively and graphically with Kaplan-Meier curves. The AAD per patient of all cutaneous attacks or facial and peripheral cutaneous attack subsets was significantly faster with C1-INH treatment than without treatment (Wilcoxon and log-rank tests, both p .0001 for all comparisons). Mean AADs per patient for all, facial, and peripheral attacks were 2.04, 1.45, and 2.16 days, respectively, in the C1-INH-treated group, and were 3.74, 4.45, and 2.98 days, respectively, in the untreated group. Kaplan-Meier curves corroborated the observed group differences. Treatment of cutaneous HAE attacks (all attacks or facial and peripheral attack subsets) with 20 IU/kg C1-INH concentrate provided faster attack resolution compared with no treatment.Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 03/2015; 36(3). DOI:10.2500/aap.2015.36.3844 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease characterized by recurring attacks of nonpruritic, nonpitting edema caused by an inherited deficiency or dysfunction of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Symptoms can present years before an accurate diagnosis is made. The objective of this study, the Angioedema Clinical Epidemiology Testing Initiative for the Study of Hereditary Angioedema, was to determine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of HAE in untested first-degree blood relatives of known patients with HAE. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HAE recruited first-degree relatives who had not been evaluated for HAE. Enrolled subjects underwent complement testing (C4, C1 INH antigen, and functional C1 INH). If the lab tests were abnormal, the enrolled subjects returned to the site for a follow-up visit and questionnaire. Overall, 31 patients with HAE and 46 first-degree relatives enrolled in the study. Of 46 enrolled relatives, 30 (65%) had lab test results that ruled out a diagnosis of HAE, two (4%) were categorized as "HAE not ruled out," and 14 (30%) were newly diagnosed with HAE. Of 14 newly diagnosed subjects, nine (64%) reported having experienced symptoms that may have been related to HAE, such as swelling in the throat, face, or extremities or abdominal pain. When reported, median age of symptom onset in these 14 subjects was nine years whereas newly diagnosed asymptomatic subjects had a median chronological age of six years. These 14 subjects reported a historic mean standard deviation rate of 2.51 (5.59) swelling episodes per month with a mean standard deviation duration of 1.6 (0.74) days. This study's findings reinforce the importance of testing family members of patients with HAE to detect this hereditary condition.Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 03/2015; 36(3). DOI:10.2500/aap.2015.36.3833 · 3.35 Impact Factor