To evaluate the effects of maternal age, induction of labour, epidural analgesia and birth weight on mode of delivery in nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy and cephalic presentation at > or =36 weeks gestation, and to describe how these factors and their influence have changed over a 17-year period from 1989 to 2005.
The study was conducted in the obstetric department of a university teaching hospital in Ireland. Of 45,647 women delivered, 14,867 were nulliparous with a singleton pregnancy and cephalic presentation and undergoing labour at > or =36 weeks gestation, and were included in the study. The main outcome measures were the influence of maternal age, induction of labour, epidural analgesia and birth weight on the mode of delivery. Multinomial logistic regression analysis for type of delivery and the associated explanatory variables and trend analysis of these variables were performed.
There was a significant progressive increase in both unplanned abdominal delivery and instrumental vaginal delivery, with advancing maternal age. Induction of labour increased the risk of unplanned abdominal delivery (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.73-2.14). Epidural analgesia was associated with an increased risk of instrumental vaginal delivery (OR 4.68; 95% CI 4.18-5.25), and unplanned abdominal delivery (OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.98-2.66). Mothers of infants with birth weight > or =4.5 kg were less likely to be delivered by instrumental vaginal delivery (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.41-0.88), than mothers delivering infants in the 2.50-4.49 kg birth weight category. Between 1989 and 2005 there was a significant increase in maternal age (P=0.0001), birth weight (P=0.042) and unplanned abdominal delivery rates (P=0.0004), and a reduction in instrumental vaginal delivery rates (P=0.0013).
These data demonstrate that the increasing trend of unplanned abdominal delivery in nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy and cephalic presentation may be partially explained by advancing maternal age, and other obstetric factors also play a significant role.
"Epidurals have been associated with increased risk for caesarean section in some studies [58-60] but, in others, they have protected nulliparas from caesarean deliveries . Sharma and colleagues found advancing maternal age and epidural anaesthesia increased the risks of unplanned abdominal delivery for nulliparas . In a prospective cohort study, Nguyen and colleagues reported epidural use was associated with twice the risk for caesarean delivery for nulliparas and multiparas . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstetrical interventions, including caesarean sections, are increasing in Canada. Canadian women's psychological states, fatigue, and sleep have not been examined prospectively for contributions to obstetric interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes.Context and purpose of the study: The prospective study was conducted in British Columbia (BC), Canada with 650 low-risk pregnant women. Of those women, 624 were included in this study. Women were recruited through providers' offices, media, posters, and pregnancy fairs. We examined associations between pregnant women's fatigue, sleep deprivation, and psychological states (anxiety and childbirth fear) and women's exposure to obstetrical interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes (preterm, admission to NICU, low APGARS, and low birth weight).
Data from our cross-sectional survey were linked, using women's personal health numbers, to birth outcomes from the Perinatal Services BC database. After stratifying for parity, we used Pearson's Chi-square to examine associations between psychological states, fatigue, sleep deprivation and maternal characteristics. We used hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test 9 hypotheses comparing women with high and low childbirth fear and anxiety on likelihood of having epidural anaesthetic, a caesarean section (stratified for parity), assisted vaginal delivery, and adverse neonatal outcomes and women with and without sleep deprivation and high levels of fatigue on likelihood of giving birth by caesarean section, while controlling for maternal, obstetrical (e.g., infant macrosomia), and psychological variables.
Significantly higher proportions of multiparas, reporting difficult and upsetting labours and births, expectations of childbirth interventions, and health stressors, reported high levels of childbirth fear. Women who reported antenatal relationship, housing, financial, and health stressors and multiparas reporting low family incomes were significantly more likely to report high anxiety levels. The hypothesis that high childbirth fear significantly increased the risk of using epidural anaesthesia was supported.
Controlling for some psychological states and sleep quality while examining other contributors to outcomes decreases the likelihood of linking childbirth fear anxiety, sleep deprivation, and fatigue to increased odds of caesarean section. Ameliorating women's childbirth fear to reduce their exposure to epidural anaesthesia can occur through developing effective interventions. These include helping multiparous women process previous experiences of difficult and upsetting labour and birth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent systematic review found no “good quality evidence” that elective induction of labor confers substantial benefits to either mothers or babies, but concluded that elective induction is associated with a decreased risk of “cesarean delivery.” Admittedly, elective induction was qualified as “at 41 weeks of gestation and beyond” with 42 weeks being proclaimed as the cutoff point between “elective” and “medically indicated.” Major predictors of the success of any induction and the subsequent mode of delivery, such as parity and cervical status, were not taken into account. Crucial boundaries between what is elective and what is selective, what is medically indicated and what is not, and what is maternal request or persuasive coercion, remain as vague as ever. (BIRTH 37:3 September, 2010)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A challenge of obstetric care is to optimize maternal and infant health outcomes and the mother's experience of childbirth with the least possible intervention in the normal process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modified birth center care on obstetric procedures during delivery and on maternal and neonatal outcomes.
In a cohort study 2,555 women who signed in for birth center care during pregnancy were compared with all 9,382 low-risk women who gave birth in the standard delivery ward in the same hospital from March 2004 to July 2008. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI) and adjusted for maternal background characteristics, elective cesarean section, and gestational age.
The modified birth center group included fewer emergency cesarean sections (primiparas: OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.58-0.83; multiparas: OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.23-0.51), and in multiparas the vacuum extraction rate was reduced (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.26-0.67). In addition, epidural analgesia was used less frequently (primiparas: OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.41-0.53; multiparas: OR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.20-0.32). Fetal distress was less frequently diagnosed in the modified birth center group (primiparas: OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59-0.87; multiparas: OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.29-0.69), but no statistically significant differences were found in neonatal hypoxia, low Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes, or proportion of perinatal deaths (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.14-1.13). Anal sphincter tears were reduced (primiparas: OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.98; multiparas: OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20-0.83).
Midwife-led comprehensive care with the same medical guidelines as in standard care reduced medical interventions without jeopardizing maternal and infant health.
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