Eidelberg DMetabolic brain networks in neurodegenerative disorders: a functional imaging approach. Trends Neurosci 32:548-557

Center for Neurosciences, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-LIJ Health System, Manhasset, NY, USA.
Trends in Neurosciences (Impact Factor: 13.56). 10/2009; 32(10):548-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.tins.2009.06.003
Source: PubMed


Network analysis of functional brain imaging data is an innovative approach to study circuit abnormalities in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, spatial covariance analysis of resting-state metabolic images has identified specific regional patterns associated with motor and cognitive symptoms. With functional imaging, these metabolic networks have recently been used to measure system-related progression and to evaluate novel treatment strategies. Network analysis is also being used to characterize specific functional biomarkers for Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. These networks have been particularly helpful in uncovering compensatory mechanisms in genetically at-risk individuals. Ongoing developments in network applications are likely to enhance the role of functional imaging in the investigation of neurodegenerative disorders.

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    • "Neuroimaging of PD has been historically dominated by metabolic techniques: positron emission tomography (PET) and singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies, using a variety of dopaminergic radiopharmaceuticals, have focused on striatal measures of nigrostriatal neurons [3]. Concurrently, fluorodeoxyglucose-PET has been used to image abnormal covariance patterns of cortical and subcortical regional metabolism that correlate with motor and cognitive impairment [4]. On the other hand, conventional brain MRI has provided only limited information [5], although the use of 7 T MRI scanners has recently allowed to detect anatomical changes of nigral morphology in PD which may likely represent, in the near future, a reliable MRI biomarker of PD diagnosis [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decades a rapid evolution of structural advanced MRI techniques has occurred supporting the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, allowing us to further investigate the disease progression from nigral to extra-nigral degeneration and finally to detect pre-manifest Parkinson's disease. Diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging represent advanced morphological approaches useful to detect changes in white matter integrity. These techniques, indeed, by measuring the translational displacement of water molecules in terms of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, represent a powerful tool for the visualization of white matter changes, offering a unique window on brain structural connectivity. Microstructural changes can either be extracted locally in predefined regions using a region of interest analysis and tractography or, alternatively, globally into the brain using a voxel-based analysis or tract-based spatial statistics. The aim of this report was not only to summarize the distribution and nature of these alterations in Parkinson's disease but also to highlight the potential correlations between clinical, cognitive parameters and microstructural tissue loss.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 09/2015; 22 Suppl 1. DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.09.018 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    • "This pattern was validated on a different subset of patients and correlated with tremor amplitude. Previous work characterized a network responsible for the akinesia and rigidity in PD, a PD-related pattern (PDRP), shown as a relative decrease in metabolic activity of the premotor, SMA, and parietal association regions (Eidelberg 2009). While STN stimulation modulated the PDRP network and improved rigidity, it had little effect on the PDTP network (Mure et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to differentially alter specific brain functions via deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a monumental advance in clinical neuroscience, as well as within medicine as a whole. Despite the efficacy of DBS in the treatment of movement disorders, for which it is often the gold-standard therapy when medical management becomes inadequate, the mechanisms through which DBS in various brain targets produces therapeutic effects is still not well understood. This limited knowledge is a barrier to improving efficacy and reducing side effects in clinical brain stimulation. A field of study related to assessing the network effects of DBS is gradually emerging that promises to reveal aspects of the underlying pathophysiology of various brain disorders and their response to DBS that will be critical to advancing the field. This review summarizes the nascent literature related to network effects of DBS measured by cerebral blood flow and metabolic imaging, functional imaging, and electrophysiology (scalp and intracranial electroencephalography, and magnetoencephalography), in order to establish a framework for future studies. Copyright © 2015, Journal of Neurophysiology.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 08/2015; 114(4):jn.00275.2015. DOI:10.1152/jn.00275.2015 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    • "Neuroimaging of PD has been historically dominated by positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies using a variety of dopaminergic radiopharmaceuticals that focus on striatal measures of nigrostriatal neurons (3). Concurrently, fluorodeoxyglucose–PET has been used to image abnormal covariance patterns of cortical and subcortical regional metabolism that correlate with motor and cognitive impairment (4). On the other hand, conventional brain MRI is currently limited to the differential diagnosis between idiopathic PD and atypical or secondary parkinsonism or to prognosticate, and to locate the targets for functional neurosurgery (5). "
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains still clinical; nevertheless, in the last decades, the rapid evolution of advanced MRI techniques has made it possible to detect structural and, increasingly, functional brain changes in patients with PD. Indeed, functional MRI (fMRI) techniques have offered the opportunity to directly measure the brain's activity and connectivity in patients with PD both in early and complicated stage of the disease. The aims of the following review are (1) to present an overview of recent fMRI reports investigating the activity and connectivity of sensorimotor areas in patients with PD using both task-related and "resting-state" fMRI analysis (2) to elucidate potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying dyskinetic motor complications in the advanced stage of PD.
    Frontiers in Neurology 09/2014; 5:180. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2014.00180
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