A walk (or cycle) to the park: active transit to neighborhood amenities, the CARDIA study.
ABSTRACT Building on known associations between active commuting and reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, this study examines active transit to neighborhood amenities and differences between walking and cycling for transportation.
Year-20 data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (3549 black and white adults aged 38-50 years in 2005-2006) were analyzed in 2008-2009. Sociodemographic correlates of transportation mode (car-only, walk-only, any cycling, other) to neighborhood amenities were examined in multivariable multinomial logistic models. Gender-stratified multivariable linear or multinomial regression models compared CVD risk factors across transit modes.
Active transit was most common to parks and public transit stops; walking was more common than cycling. Among those who used each amenity, active transit (walk-only and any cycling versus car-only transit) was more common in men and those with no live-in partner and less than full-time employment (significant ORs [95% CI] ranging from 1.56 [1.08, 2.27] to 4.54 [1.70, 12.14]), and less common in those with children. Active transit to any neighborhood amenity was associated with more favorable BMI, waist circumference, and fitness (largest coefficient [95% CI] -1.68 [-2.81, -0.55] for BMI, -3.41 [-5.71, -1.11] for waist circumference [cm], and 36.65 [17.99, 55.31] for treadmill test duration [seconds]). Only cycling was associated with lower lifetime CVD risk classification.
Active transit to neighborhood amenities was related to sociodemographics and CVD risk factors. Variation in health-related benefits by active transit mode, if validated in prospective studies, may have implications for transportation planning and research.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To better understand the health benefits of promoting active travel, it is important to understand the relationship between a change in active travel and changes in recreational and total physical activity. METHODS: These analyses, carried out in April 2012, use longitudinal data from 1628 adult respondents (mean age 54 years; 47% male) in the UK-based iConnect study. Travel and recreational physical activity were measured using detailed seven-day recall instruments. Adjusted linear regression models were fitted with change in active travel defined as 'decreased' (<-15 min/week), 'maintained' (+/-15 min/week) or 'increased' (>15 min/week) as the primary exposure variable and changes in (a) recreational and (b) total physical activity (min/week) as the primary outcome variables. RESULTS: Active travel increased in 32% (n=529), was maintained in 33% (n=534) and decreased in 35% (n=565) of respondents. Recreational physical activity decreased in all groups but this decrease was not greater in those whose active travel increased. Conversely, changes in active travel were associated with commensurate changes in total physical activity. Compared with those whose active travel remained unchanged, total physical activity decreased by 176.9 min/week in those whose active travel had decreased (adjusted regression coefficient -154.9, 95% CI -195.3 to -114.5) and was 112.2 min/week greater among those whose active travel had increased (adjusted regression coefficient 135.1, 95% CI 94.3 to 175.9). CONCLUSION: An increase in active travel was associated with a commensurate increase in total physical activity and not a decrease in recreational physical activity.International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 02/2013; 10(1):28. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-10-28 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Parks offer a free option for physical activity in many communities. How much time people spend using parks and the contribution that parks makes to their physical activity is not known. This study describes patterns of park use and physical activity among a diverse adult sample.Methods: From five US states, 238 adults enrolled in or near 31 study parks. Participants wore a global positioning system (GPS) monitor (Qstarz BT-Q1000X) and an ActiGraph accelerometer (GT1M) concurrently for three weeks. Parks were mapped from local and national park shape files. Park visits and travel to and from the parks were derived from the objective data.Results: Participants visited parks a median of 2.3 times/week and park visits lasted a median of 42.0 minutes. Overall, participants engaged in a median of 21.7 minutes/day of moderate activity and 0.1 minutes/day of vigorous activity, with an average of 8.2% of all moderate and 9.4% of all vigorous activity occurring within the parks. Among those with at least one park visit (n=218), counts per minute, moderate, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), number and time in MVPA bouts/day, and sedentary behavior were all higher on days when a park was visited compared to days when a park was not visited. Considering several definitions of active travel, walking or bicycling to and from the park added an additional 3.7 to 6.6 mean minutes of MVPA per park visit.Conclusion: Parks contributed as a place and destination for physical activity, but were underutilized. One of the next steps in this line of inquiry is to understand characteristics of parks used more often as a place and destination for physical activity.Medicine and science in sports and exercise 03/2013; DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318293330e · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Anxiety symptoms may be a barrier to physical activity (PA) such that persons who experience anxiety engage in less PA. The purpose of this study was to assess if symptoms of panic disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or agoraphobia are associated with frequency, intensity or type of PA in young adults. Methods Data on lifetime anxiety symptoms and current PA levels were collected in self-report questionnaires in 2007–2008 from 880 persons aged 18–24 years participating in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study. The associations between anxiety symptom subtypes and different PA modalities were investigated in five multivariable logistic regression models, one for each of five PA indicators (i.e., meeting moderate-to vigorous PA (MVPA) guidelines, meeting strength training guidelines, meeting both MVPA and strength training guidelines, participating in team sports, frequent walking) as outcomes. Results 37%, 47%, 40% and 21% of participants reported lifetime symptoms of panic disorder, social phobia, GAD, and agoraphobia, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression, participants who endorsed lifetime GAD symptoms were statistically significantly less likely to meet MVPA guidelines (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4–0.8, p < 0.05), and MVPA and strength training guidelines (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5–1.0, p < 0.05). Those with agoraphobia symptoms were more likely to walk frequently [OR (95% CI) = 1.6 (1.1, 2.3)]. Conclusion PA interventions may need to be tailored to people who have experienced specific anxiety symptoms to maximize adherence to PA recommendations, and increase the potential for health benefits from PA participation.Mental Health and Physical Activity 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.mhpa.2013.07.003