Mechanism of abnormal growth in astrocytes derived from a mouse model of GM2 gangliosidosis.
ABSTRACT Sandhoff disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the HEXB gene which encodes the beta-subunit of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase A and B, resulting in the accumulation of the ganglioside GM2. We isolated astrocytes from the neonatal brain of Sandhoff disease model mice in which the N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase beta-subunit gene is genetically disrupted (ASD). Glycolipid profiles revealed that GM2/GA2 accumulated in the lysosomes and not on the cell surface of ASD astrocytes. In addition, GM3 was increased on the cell surface. We found remarkable differences in the cell proliferation of ASD astrocytes when compared with cells isolated from wild-type mice, with a faster growth rate of ASD cells. In addition, we observed increased extracellular, signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in ASD cells, but Akt phosphorylation was decreased. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ERK in ASD cells was not dependent upon extracellular growth factors. Treatment of ASD astrocytes with recombinant N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase A resulted in a decrease of their growth rate and ERK phosphorylation. These results indicated that the up-regulation of ERK phosphorylation and the increase in proliferation of ASD astrocytes were dependent upon GM2/GA2 accumulation. These findings may represent a mechanism in linking the nerve cell death and reactive gliosis observed in Sandhoff disease.
Article: GMab-1, a high-affinity anti-3'-isoLM1/3',6'-isoLD1 IgG monoclonal antibody, raised in lacto-series ganglioside-defective knockout mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The lacto-series gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1 have been identified as tumor-associated antigens whose formation is initiated by the Lc3-synthase. Until now, high-affinity IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1, which are highly expressed in gliomas, have not been developed, although mAbs against lacto-series gangliosides are powerful tools for functional studies. We previously produced the Lc3-synthase gene beta3Gn-T5 knockout mice. In this study, we immunized beta3Gn-T5 knockout mice with 3'-isoLM1/3',6'-isoLD1 and produced the anti-3'-isoLM1/3',6'-isoLD1 mAb GMab-1, of the IgG(3) subclass, which should be useful for functional analysis of lacto-series gangliosides and for antibody-based therapy of gliomas.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2009; 391(1):750-5. · 2.48 Impact Factor
Article: Imaging mass spectrometry detection of gangliosides species in the mouse brain following transient focal cerebral ischemia and long-term recovery.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gangliosides, a member of the glycosphingolipid family, are heterogeneously expressed in biological membranes and are particularly enriched within the central nervous system. Gangliosides consist of mono- or poly-sialylated oligosaccharide chains of variable lengths attached to a ceramide unit and are found to be intimately involved in brain disease development. The purpose of this study is to examine the spatial profile of ganglioside species using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging (IMS) following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) reperfusion injury in the mouse. IMS is a powerful method to not only discriminate gangliosides by their oligosaccharide components, but also by their carbon length within their sphingosine base. Mice were subjected to a 30 min unilateral MCAO followed by long-term survival (up to 28 days of reperfusion). Brain sections were sprayed with the matrix 5-Chloro-2-mercaptobenzothiazole, scanned and analyzed for a series of ganglioside molecules using an Applied Biosystems 4800 MALDI TOF/TOF. Traditional histological and immunofluorescence techniques were performed to assess brain tissue damage and verification of the expression of gangliosides of interest. Results revealed a unique anatomical profile of GM1, GD1 and GT1b (d18:1, d20:1 as well as other members of the glycosphingolipid family). There was marked variability in the ratio of expression between ipsilateral and contralateral cortices for the various detected ganglioside species following MCAO-reperfusion injury. Most interestingly, MCAO resulted in the transient induction of both GM2 and GM3 signals within the ipsilateral hemisphere; at the border of the infarcted tissue. Taken together, the data suggest that brain region specific expression of gangliosides, particularly with respect to hydrocarbon length, may play a role in neuronal responses to injury.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e20808. · 4.09 Impact Factor