Kinaesthetic and visual perceptions of orientations

Information, Organisation et Action, EA 4260, UFR STAPS, University of Caen Basse Normandie, 14032 Caen Cedex, France.
Perception (Impact Factor: 0.91). 01/2009; 38(7):988-1001. DOI: 10.1068/p6132
Source: PubMed


In the present study we compare the kinaesthetic and visual perception of the vertical and horizontal orientations (subjective vertical and subjective horizontal) to determine whether the perception of cardinal orientations is amodal or modality-specific. The influence of methodological factors on the accuracy of perception is also investigated by varying the stimulus position as a function of its initial tilt (clockwise or counterclockwise) and its angle (22 degrees, 45 degrees, 67 degrees, and 90 degrees) in respect to its physical orientation. Ten participants estimated the vertical and horizontal orientations by repositioning a rod in the kinaesthetic condition or two luminous points, forming a 'virtual line' in the visual condition. Results within the visual modality replicated previous findings by showing that estimation of the physical orientations is very accurate regardless of the initial position of the virtual line. In contrast, the perception of orientation with the kinaesthetic modality was less accurate and systematically influenced by the angle between the initial position of the rod and the required orientation. The findings question the assumption that the subjective vertical is derived from an internal representation of gravity and highlight the necessity of taking into account methodological factors in studies on subjective orientations.

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Available from: François Jouen, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "(5) Participant's posture: in most studies the participants were tested while sitting upright, although tests in a supine position (e.g. Saj et al., 2005b; Funk et al., 2010a) or standing upright (Lejeune et al., 2009) were also described. (6) Passive versus active bar rotation: across the various studies, healthy participants or patients were able to manually control the rotation of the bar in the socalled 'visuo-haptic' paradigm (Saj et al., 2006; Pagarkar et al., 2008) or, they had to look at a bar rotated by the examiner (Vingerhoets et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left handed) were enrolled. A luminous bar was displayed on a PC screen, and rotated in steps of 0.4° until the participant perceived it as vertical. A positive sign was attributed to a clockwise rotation of the bar. The detection threshold was set at the angle corresponding to a perceived vertical, which the participant then selected out of three subsequent alternatives (each at +0.4 or -0.4°). The participant's position (sitting vs. standing) and the preset angle of presentation (clockwise vs. counterclockwise) were balanced across sex. The constant or deviation error (dE, in degrees) and the absolute errors (aE, in degrees) were computed. An analysis of variance model tested the dependence of dE on sex, posture, age, handedness, and the preset angle. Both dE and aE were unrelated to sex, posture, handedness, and the preset angle, but were dependent on age (junior, ≤43 years; senior, >43 years). The mean dE was -0.14 ± 0.60 in the junior and 0.42 ± 0.64 in the senior group, respectively. The minimal real difference of the dE was 0.75 and 0.25 in the junior and the senior group, respectively. The overall median aE was 0.4 (5th-95th percentile 0-1.2) in the junior and 0.8 (0.4-1.46) in the senior group, respectively. The whole test took no longer than 15 min in healthy participants, and 25 min in stroke patients. The test was applied to three subacute stroke patients with left hemiparesis, of whom two showed left spatial hemineglect. All three patients presented with a significant clockwise dE. This simple test appears to be valid for the routine assessment of spatial disorders in neurological impairments.
    International journal of rehabilitation research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Rehabilitationsforschung. Revue internationale de recherches de readaptation 09/2011; 34(4):307-15. DOI:10.1097/MRR.0b013e32834c45bc · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    • "Yet, this somatosensory method is less accurate than the visual method and shows already in upright position a large intra-individual variability for setting the bar earthvertical (Bauermeister 1964; Kerkhoff 1999; Lejeune et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Estimation of subjective whole-body tilt in stationary roll positions after rapid rotations shows hysteresis. We asked whether this phenomenon is also present during continuous quasi-static whole-body rotation and whether gravitational cues are a major contributing factor. Using a motorized turntable, 8 healthy subjects were rotated continuously about the earth-horizontal naso-occipital axis (earth-vertical roll plane) and the earth-vertical naso-occipital axis (earth-horizontal roll plane). In both planes, three full constant velocity rotations (2°/s) were completed in clockwise and counterclockwise directions (acceleration = 0.05°/s(2), velocity plateau reached after 40 s). Subjects adjusted a visual line along the perceived longitudinal body axis (pLBA) every 2 s. pLBA deviation from the longitudinal body axis was plotted as a function of whole-body roll position, and a sine function was fitted. At identical whole-body earth-vertical roll plane positions, pLBA differed depending on whether the position was reached by a rotation from upright or by passing through upside down. After the first 360° rotation, pLBA at upright whole-body position deviated significantly in the direction of rotation relative to pLBA prior to rotation initiation. This deviation remained unchanged after subsequent full rotations. In contrast, earth-horizontal roll plane rotations resulted in similar pLBA before and after each rotation cycle. We conclude that the deviation of pLBA in the direction of rotation during quasi-static earth-vertical roll plane rotations reflects static antihysteresis and might be a consequence of the known static hysteresis of ocular counterroll: a visual line that is perceived that earth-vertical is expected to be antihysteretic, if ocular torsion is hysteretic.
    Experimental Brain Research 02/2011; 209(3):443-54. DOI:10.1007/s00221-011-2572-8 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    • "In pointing straight-ahead tasks and line bisection tasks used to indicate perceived body midline [47], similar deviations have been reported, showing overall slight leftward shifts and pointing from right-to-left ended significantly further right than pointing from left-to-right (see [48] for review). For bimanual kinaesthetic adjustments in a standing upright position, CW rotations yielded average adjustments shifted CCW relative to those obtained with CCW rotations [49,50]. The offsets noted for the unimanual haptic adjustments used here resemble this pattern. "
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    ABSTRACT: When roll-tilted, the subjective visual vertical (SVV) deviates up to 40 degrees from earth-vertical and trial-to-trial variability increases with head roll. Imperfections in the central processing of visual information were postulated to explain these roll-angle dependent errors. For experimental conditions devoid of visual input, e.g. adjustments of body posture or of an object along vertical in darkness, significantly smaller errors were noted. Whereas the accuracy of verticality adjustments seems to depend strongly on the paradigm, we hypothesize that the precision, i.e. the inverse of trial-to-trial variability, is less influenced by the experimental setup and mainly reflects properties of the otoliths. Here we measured the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) and compared findings with previously reported SVV data. Twelve healthy right-handed human subjects (handedness assessed based on subjects' verbal report) adjusted a rod with the right hand along perceived earth-vertical during static head roll-tilts (0-360 degrees , steps of 20 degrees ). SHV adjustments showed a tendency for clockwise rod rotations to deviate counter-clockwise and for counter-clockwise rod rotations to deviate clockwise, indicating hysteresis. Clockwise rod rotations resulted in counter-clockwise shifts of perceived earth-vertical up to -11.7 degrees and an average counter-clockwise SHV shift over all roll angles of -3.3 degrees (+/- 11.0 degrees ; +/- 1 StdDev). Counter-clockwise rod rotations yielded peak SHV deviations in clockwise direction of 8.9 degrees and an average clockwise SHV shift over all roll angles of 1.8 degrees (+/- 11.1 degrees ). Trial-to-trial variability was minimal in upright position, increased with increasing roll (peaking around 120-140 degrees ) and decreased to intermediate values in upside-down orientation. Compared to SVV, SHV variability near upright and upside-down was non-significantly (p > 0.05) larger; both showed an m-shaped pattern of variability as a function of roll position. The reduction of adjustment errors by eliminating visual input supports the notion that deviations between perceived and actual earth-vertical in roll-tilted positions arise from central processing of visual information. The shared roll-tilt dependent modulation of trial-to-trial variability for both SVV and SHV, on the other hand, indicates that the perception of earth-verticality is dominated by the same sensory signal, i.e. the otolith signal, independent of whether the line/rod setting is under visual or tactile control.
    BMC Neuroscience 07/2010; 11(1):83. DOI:10.1186/1471-2202-11-83 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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