Partial Pressures of PCB-11 in Air from Several Great Lakes Sites
ABSTRACT Relatively high concentrations of 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) have been reported in water and air, and it has been suggested that this compound did not come from commercial PCB products. We report here data on atmospheric partial pressures of PCB-11 and of total PCBs at five sites around the Great Lakes and demonstrate that both total PCBs and PCB-11 track human population density. In addition, we show that with the exception of Chicago, the PCB congener pattern at our sampling sites is best represented by Aroclor 1242; in Chicago, the pattern is best represented by a 1:1 mixture of Aroclors 1242 and 1254. With the possible exception of Sturgeon Point New York, the levels of PCB-11 in air have not changed between January 2004 and December 2007. The source of PCB-11 may be related to yellow pigments, to the degradation of more highly chlorinated PCB congeners, or to both.
SourceAvailable from: Lisa Ann Rodenburg[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The non-Aroclor congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11) has been recently detected in air, water, sediment, and biota. It has been known since at least the 1970s that this congener is produced inadvertently during the production of certain organic pigments. PCB 11 was previously measured at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in various printed materials obtained in the US. In this work, PCB 11 was detected in samples of common consumer goods including magazines, advertisements, maps, postcards, brochures, napkins, and garments from 26 countries in five continents at concentrations ranging from 0.27 to 86 ppb. Leaching tests confirmed that PCB 11 could be released from these materials into water. We also examined whether the known sources of PCB 11 were large enough to account for the levels of PCB 11 measured in the air, water, soil and sediment of the Delaware River Basin. A mass flow analysis suggests that the outflows and sequestration of PCB 11 in the basin total between 30 and 280 kg y-1. If PCB 11 concentrations in pigments were at the maximum average (125 ppm) allowed under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the estimated input of PCB 11 to the Delaware River Basin would be on the order of 42 kg y-1. Despite the large uncertainty in these numbers, the results suggest that pigments may plausibly account for the levels of PCB 11 measured in the environment.Environmental Science and Technology 06/2014; 48(15). DOI:10.1021/es502291b · 5.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the concentrations and congener patterns of PCBs unintentionally present in chlorophenylsilanes. Chlorophenylsilanes are used in the production of silicone-based adhesives and phenyl silicones. The concentration of PCBs in adhesives was found to range from not-detectable concentrations to 40 mg/kg. The concentrations of PCBs in trichlorophenylsilane, dichlorodiphenylsilane, chlorotriphenylsilane, and diphenylsilanediol were 0.00072–2.7, 6.5–1,500, 0.019–1.1, and 0.12–120 mg/kg, respectively. Dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol, in particular, had high PCB concentrations. The PCB concentration of some specimens exceeded the 50 mg/kg limit set by the transportation regulations of the Stockholm Convention. In the adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes, mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls were detected in high proportions. The congeners detected in dichlorinated biphenyls had a structure in which one chlorine atom was substituted at each of the two aryls of the biphenyl backbone. This indicated that the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes undergoes dimerization. The congener and homologue patterns of the adhesives containing PCBs were similar to dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol. It was concluded that the production of the adhesives is based on these substances. In addition, these results indicate that silicone-based products may become a source of PCBs in the environment, leading to irregular PCB values in environmental analysis.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The atmospheric concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan) in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m-3 (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m-3) and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m-3 (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m-3), respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m-3 and 274.2 pg·m-3, respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle-gas partition coefficient Kp (m3·ug-1) and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°). The slope (m) values for log-log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle-gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies) was the dominant source for PCBs.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11/2014; 11(11):11065-80. DOI:10.3390/ijerph111111065 · 1.99 Impact Factor