Partial Pressures of PCB-11 in Air from Several Great Lakes Sites

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 09/2009; 43(17):6488-92. DOI: 10.1021/es900919d
Source: PubMed


Relatively high concentrations of 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) have been reported in water and air, and it has been suggested that this compound did not come from commercial PCB products. We report here data on atmospheric partial pressures of PCB-11 and of total PCBs at five sites around the Great Lakes and demonstrate that both total PCBs and PCB-11 track human population density. In addition, we show that with the exception of Chicago, the PCB congener pattern at our sampling sites is best represented by Aroclor 1242; in Chicago, the pattern is best represented by a 1:1 mixture of Aroclors 1242 and 1254. With the possible exception of Sturgeon Point New York, the levels of PCB-11 in air have not changed between January 2004 and December 2007. The source of PCB-11 may be related to yellow pigments, to the degradation of more highly chlorinated PCB congeners, or to both.

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    • "In 2008, the Iowa Superfund Research Program (ISRP) published the results of a large-scale air toxinmonitoring program, demonstrating for the fi rst time that PCB 11 (3,3 ′ di-chlorobiphenyl), a non-Aroclor PCB that has been previously detected in the New York/New Jersey harbor surface and in waste water (Litten et al. 2002), was ubiquitous in the air in Chicago (Hu et al. 2008) and in Cleveland (Persoon et al. 2010). Since that initial discovery, researchers have reported the presence of nonlegacy PCBs in air samples around the world and it has been revealed that the most likely source of these contaminants is volatilization from common household paint (Basu et al. 2009, Choi et al. 2008). In 2010, a study of PCBs in pigments manufactured and sold as colorants in household paint revealed the presence of more than 50 nonlegacy PCBs (Hu and Hornbuckle 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity, and thereby on the assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general, and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism, and to identify the metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed.
    Critical Reviews in Toxicology 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/10408444.2014.999365 · 5.10 Impact Factor
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    • "For example, it was found out that PCB congeners −11, −52, and −209 are produced as by-products during the manufacture of some azo-type and phthalocyanine-type pigments. Interestingly, PCB-11 was not found in PCB technical mixtures (Frame et al. 1996; Schulz et al. 1989) but in environmental media, such as atmosphere, water, and sediments, around the world (Basu et al. 2009; Du et al. 2008; Hu et al. 2008; King et al. 2002; Li et al. 2012; Litten et al. 2002; Rodenburg et al. 2010; Romano et al. 2013; Rowe et al. 2007). It is of great "
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports the concentrations and congener partners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially available paints. Polycyclic-type pigments containing dioxazine violet (pigment violet (PV) 23, PV37) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (PR254, PR255) were found to contain PCB-56, PCB-77, PCB-40, PCB-5, and PCB-12, and PCB-6, PCB-13, and PCB-15, respectively, as major congeners. Dioxazine violet is contaminated with by-products during synthesis from o-dichlorobenzene, which is used as a solvent during synthesis, and diketopyrrolopyrrole is contaminated with by-products during synthesis from p-chlorobenzonitrile. The concentration of PCBs in paint containing PV23 or PV37 was 0.050-29 mg/kg, and toxic equivalency (TEQ) values ranged 1.1-160 pg-TEQ/g. The concentration of PCBs in paint containing PR254 or PR255 was 0.0019-2.4 mg/kg. Naphthol AS is an azo-type pigment, and PCB-52 was detected in paint containing pigment red (PR) 9 with 2,5-dichloroaniline as its source. PCB-146, PCB-149, and PCB-153 were identified from paint containing PR112 produced from 2,4,5-trichloroaniline, as major congeners. These congeners have chlorine positions similar to aniline, indicating that these congeners are by-products obtained during the synthesis of pigments. The concentrations of PCBs in paints containing PR9 and PR112 were 0.0042-0.43 and 0.0044-3.8 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding TEQ for PR112 was 0.0039-8.6 pg-TEQ/g.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 05/2014; 22(19). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-2985-6 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    • "It appears that there is a more recent source(s) of PCB 11. Possible origins of PCB 11 include yellow pigments used in paints (Basu et al., 2009). For the Escambia watershed there are no known sources for the diarylide dyes used in yellow paint or other dyes that could serve as a source of PCB 11 other than what is present on painted structures. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic substances that have been detected in many parts of the environment and can have major negative impacts on ecosystem and human health. A documented release of PCBs from a nylon plant occurred in 1969 on the Escambia River just upstream of the Escambia Bay estuary along the north coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Other unreported releases of PCBs also likely occurred in the river and bay. The present study sampled sediments in the river and bay and assessed the predominant parent Aroclor of PCBs, and the changes in congener profile and toxic equivalents (TEQ) since the release. United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) method 1668A, which provides quantitative data for 168 elutions, was employed for the analysis according to National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program procedures. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis of the PCB congener profiles for the sediments and Aroclors showed that the sedimentary PCB congeners are most similar to that of early production Aroclor 1254 made prior to 1971. Chronologically the use of the early production Aroclor 1254 corresponds to the time of the release. Since the release, overall chlorination of the sedimentary PCBs has decreased by 3% as a result of a shift in chlorination homolog profile to lesser-chlorinated congeners that presumably originated from dechlorination of Aroclor PCBs and from non-Aroclor source(s) of PCB 11, a dichlorobiphenyl. Despite a likely overall decrease in the quantity of dioxin-like PCBs, the TEQ/mole of sediment PCBs, did not substantially change because of a highly toxic congener (PCB 126) that was present at trace amounts in the sediments. There was a modest increase in lesser-chlorinated O,P-congeners that are suspected to have some toxicity to mammals. These findings have relevance for the evolution of environmental PCBs, which has not been studied in this system.
    Environmental Forensics 06/2012; 13(2):164-174. DOI:10.1080/15275922.2012.676595 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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