IL-33 synergizes with IgE-dependent and IgE-independent agents to promote mast cell and basophil activation.
ABSTRACT Mast cell and basophil activation contributes to inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Because IL-33 expression is inflammation inducible, we investigated IL-33-mediated effects in concert with both IgE-mediated and IgE-independent stimulation.
Because the HMC-1 mast cell line can be activated by GPCR and RTK signaling, we studied the effects of IL-33 on these pathways. The IL-33- and SCF-stimulated HMC-1 cells were co-cultured with human lung fibroblasts and airway smooth muscle cells in a collagen gel contraction assay. IL-33 effects on IgE-mediated activation were studied in primary mast cells and basophils.
IL-33 synergized with adenosine, C5a, SCF, and NGF receptor activation. IL-33-stimulated and SCF-stimulated HMC-1 cells demonstrated enhanced collagen gel contraction when cultured with fibroblasts or smooth muscle cells. IL-33 also synergized with IgE receptor activation of primary human mast cells and basophils.
IL-33 amplifies inflammation in both IgE-independent and IgE-dependent responses.
- SourceAvailable from: Byungsuk Kwon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inflammation is defined as a physiological response initiated by a variety of conditions that cause insult to the body, such as infection and tissue injury. Inflammation is triggered by specialized receptors in the innate immune system, which recognize microbial components known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns or endogenous signals produced by damaged cells (damage-associated molecular patterns). IL-33 is a cytokine that is released predominantly at the epithelial barrier when it is exposed to pathogens, allergens, or injury-inducing stimuli. IL-33 target cells are various, ranging from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and essentially all types of their progeny to many non-hematopoietic cells. The pleiotropic actions of IL-33 suggest that IL-33 is involved in every phase of the inflammatory process. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of how IL-33 orchestrates inflammatory responses by regulating HSPCs and innate immune cells.Frontiers in Immunology 05/2013; 4:104. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00104
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ABSTRACT: For at least half a century, noninvasive techniques have been available to quantify skin barrier function, and these have shown that a number of human skin conditions and disorders are associated with defects in skin permeability. In the past decade, several genes responsible for skin barrier defects observed in both monogenetic and complex polygenic disorders have been elucidated and functionally characterized. This has led to an explosion of work in the past 6 years that has identified pathways connecting epidermal barrier disruption and antigen uptake, as well as the quality and/or magnitude of the antigen-specific adaptive immune response. This review will introduce the notion that diseases arise from the dynamic crosstalk that occurs between skin barrier and the immune system using atopic dermatitis or eczema as the disease prototype. Nevertheless, the concepts put forth are highly relevant to a number of antigen-driven disorders for which skin barrier is at least transiently compromised, such as psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and blistering disorders.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/2012; 132(3 Pt 2):949-63. DOI:10.1038/jid.2011.435 · 6.37 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Design of a file server operating system[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper describes the design of a file server operating system called Cypress. The design of Cypress is aimed at improving the file server response time through exploiting latest hardware advances. Cypress is distinctive in its caching and management strategies that take advantage of the large-capacity disk caches, tens to hundreds megabytes, and the powerful processors in contemporary file servers. If compared with general-purpose operating systems that are installed to perform file server operations, Cypress enjoys another advantage of featuring more predictable response time for real-time applications. Based on our measurement on our first version of implementation, the average hit response times of Cypress when running on a Intel 80486 CPU based PC with 32-megabyte memory are 1.38 ms and 1.39 ms for read and write requests, respectivelyTENCON '93. Proceedings. Computer, Communication, Control and Power Engineering.1993 IEEE Region 10 Conference on; 11/1993