IL-33 synergizes with IgE-dependent and IgE-independent agents to promote mast cell and basophil activation.
ABSTRACT Mast cell and basophil activation contributes to inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Because IL-33 expression is inflammation inducible, we investigated IL-33-mediated effects in concert with both IgE-mediated and IgE-independent stimulation.
Because the HMC-1 mast cell line can be activated by GPCR and RTK signaling, we studied the effects of IL-33 on these pathways. The IL-33- and SCF-stimulated HMC-1 cells were co-cultured with human lung fibroblasts and airway smooth muscle cells in a collagen gel contraction assay. IL-33 effects on IgE-mediated activation were studied in primary mast cells and basophils.
IL-33 synergized with adenosine, C5a, SCF, and NGF receptor activation. IL-33-stimulated and SCF-stimulated HMC-1 cells demonstrated enhanced collagen gel contraction when cultured with fibroblasts or smooth muscle cells. IL-33 also synergized with IgE receptor activation of primary human mast cells and basophils.
IL-33 amplifies inflammation in both IgE-independent and IgE-dependent responses.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Immunization of mice or rats with a "non-self" protein is a commonly used method to obtain monoclonal antibodies, and relies on the immune system's ability to recognize the immunogen as foreign. Immunization of an antigen with 100% identity to the endogenous protein, however, will not elicit a robust immune response. To develop antibodies to mouse proteins, we focussed on the potential for breaking such immune tolerance by genetically fusing two independent T-cell epitope-containing sequences (from tetanus toxin (TT) and diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA)) to a mouse protein, mouse ST2 (mST2). Wild-type CD1 mice were immunized with three mST2 tagged proteins (Fc, TT and DTA) and the specific serum response was determined. Only in mice immunized with the T-cell epitope-containing antigens were specific mST2 serum responses detected; hybridomas generated from these mice secreted highly sequence-diverse IgGs that were capable of binding mST2 and inhibiting the interaction of mST2 with its ligand, mouse interleukin (IL)-33 (mIL-33). Of the hundreds of antibodies profiled, we identified five potent antibodies that were able to inhibit IL-33 induced IL-6 release in a mast cell assay; notably one such antibody was sufficiently potent to suppress IL-5 release and eosinophilia infiltration in an Alternaria alternata challenge mouse model of asthma. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that T-cell epitope-containing tags have the ability to break tolerance in wild-type mice to 100% conserved proteins, and it provides a compelling argument for the broader use of this approach to generate antibodies against any mouse protein or conserved orthologue.mAbs 12/2014; 7(1). DOI:10.4161/19420862.2014.985489 · 4.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IRAK4, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a key role in both inflammation and oncology diseases. Herein, we summarize the compelling biology surrounding the IRAK4 signaling node in disease, review key structural features of IRAK4 including selectivity challenges, and describe efforts to discover clinically viable IRAK4 inhibitors. Finally, a view of knowledge gained and remaining challenges is provided.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2014; 58(1). DOI:10.1021/jm5016044 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal nematodes pose a major risk to the farming of small ruminants worldwide. Infections are typically controlled by anthelmintics, however as resistance to anthelmintics increases, it is necessary that the mechanism of host responses are understood in order to develop alternative control options. It is hypothesised that basophils are involved in the initiation of an anti-parasite immune response, independent of IgE. In this study, the in vitro activation states of CD203c+ basophil-like KU812 cells were determined in the presence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis parasitised HT29 epithelial cells with or without mucin. Cell surface expression of CD164, CD107a and CD13 antigens on gated CD203+ cells were determined and qRT-PCR was used to examine gene expression changes of IL33 (a Th2 cytokine) and the high affinity IgE receptor (FcɛRIα) within the co-culture. When KU812 basophils encountered T. colubriformis and/or mucin in a parasitised epithelium, the basophils increased cell surface expression of CD13 and CD164 antigens, independent of IgE. T. colubriformis also increased the number of CD203c+ KU812 cells that expressed CD13 and CD164 antigens. These data support the in vivo observations of T. colubriformis primary infections in guinea pigs and sheep.Veterinary Parasitology 10/2014; 207(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.10.012 · 2.55 Impact Factor