Article

Childhood socioeconomic position and disability in later life: results of the health and retirement study.

Institute of Gerontology, Wayne State University, 87 E Ferry St, 226 Knapp Building, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.23). 09/2009; 100 Suppl 1:S197-203. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.160986
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We used a life course approach to assess the ways in which childhood socioeconomic position may be associated with disability in later life.
We used longitudinal data from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (1998-2006) to examine associations between parental education, paternal occupation, and disabilities relating to activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs).
Respondents whose fathers had low levels of education and those whose fathers were absent or had died while they were growing up were at increased risk of disability in later life, net of social, behavioral, and pathological health risks in adulthood. Social mobility and health behaviors were also important factors in the association between low childhood socioeconomic position and ADL and IADL disabilities.
Our findings highlight the need for policies and programs aimed at improving the well-being of both children and families. A renewed commitment to such initiatives may help reduce health care costs and the need for people to use health and social services in later life.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Mary Elizabeth Bowen, Aug 03, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
109 Views
  • Source
    • "Statistical Analyses A major obstacle in examining mental health and marital status is the issue of whether selection factors could influence the observed relationships. For example, adverse life course events have been associated with not only greater likelihood of being nonmarried but also increased risk of physical limitations and mental health problems in adulthood (Amato 1996; Bowen and González 2010; Chartier, Walker, and Naimark 2010; Colman and Widom 2004; Green et al. 2010; Horwitz et al. 2001). If they are not comprehensively taken into account, these time-stable factors could therefore lead to a spurious association in the focal relationships for this research. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This research examines how marital status modifies the relationship between functional limitations and two aspects of psychological distress—depression and anger. Analyses of a multiwave national probability survey show that marriage weakens the relationship between functional limitations and depression, but this moderation is specific to older men. Functional limitations are not significantly related to anger once time-stable confounds are comprehensively controlled, and this association does not differ by marital status. This research shows that marriage may benefit mental health by preventing the deleterious effects of chronic stressors, but marital status intersects with additional social statuses and a life course context in creating these modifying effects. In addition, research that does not consider both internalizing and externalizing mental health outcomes and comprehensively take time-stable confounds into account may present an incomplete depiction of the mental health consequences of stress and social arrangements.
    03/2012; 2(1):35-52. DOI:10.1177/2156869312442884
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the effects of correlated fading and outdated channel estimation on scan and wait combining (SWC) which is an alternative form of switch and examine combining (SEC). With this scheme, the combiner waits for one channel coherence time if all the available diversity paths fail to meet a predetermined minimum quality requirement. The scanning through the available diversity paths followed by waiting is repeated indefinitely until a path with an acceptable quality is found. This paper looks into the average probability of error, delay statistics, and the number of diversity paths estimated per channel access of these SWC diversity systems when correlation and outdated channel estimates are taken into account. Selected numerical examples compare the performance results of SWC with traditional SEC along with the corresponding complexity and delay statistics.
    Vehicular Technology Conference, 2004. VTC2004-Fall. 2004 IEEE 60th; 10/2004
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study used a life course approach to examine the ways in which childhood socioeconomic status (SES) may account for some of the racial differences in disability in later life. Eight years (5 waves) of longitudinal data from the US Health and Retirement Study (HRS; 1998-2006), a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling Black and White Americans over age 50 (N=14,588), were used in nonlinear multilevel models. Parental education and father's occupation were used to predict racial differences in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The role of adult SES (education, income, and wealth) and health behaviors (smoking, drinking alcohol, exercising, and being obese) were also examined and models were adjusted for health conditions (heart problems, diabetes, stroke, hypertension, cancer, lung disease, and arthritis). With the inclusion of childhood SES indicators, racial differences in ADL and IADL disability were reduced. Adult SES and health behaviors mediated some of the relationship between low childhood SES and disability, though low childhood SES continued to be associated with disability net of these. In support of a life course approach, these findings suggest that socioeconomic conditions in early life may have implications for racial differences in disability between older Black and older White adults.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 07/2009; 69(3):433-41. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.06.006 · 2.56 Impact Factor
Show more