20-125Iodo-14,15-Epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic Acid: a High-Affinity Radioligand Used to Characterize the Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid Antagonist Binding Site

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.97). 09/2009; 331(3):1137-45. DOI: 10.1124/jpet.109.157818
Source: PubMed


Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are endothelium-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid. They relax vascular smooth muscle by membrane hyperpolarization. These actions are inhibited by the EET antagonist, 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (14,15-EE5ZE). We synthesized 20-(125)iodo-14,15-EE5ZE (20-(125)I-14,15-EE5ZE), a radiolabeled EET antagonist, and characterized its binding to cell membranes. 14,15-EET (10(-9)-10(-5)M) caused a concentration-related relaxation of the preconstricted bovine coronary artery and phosphorylation of p38 in U937 cells that were inhibited by 20-(125)I-14,15-EE5ZE. Specific 20-(125)I-14,15-EE5ZE binding to U937 cell membranes reached equilibrium within 5 min and remained unchanged for 30 min. The binding was saturable and reversible, and it exhibited K(D) and B(max) values of 1.11 +/- 0.13 nM and 1.13 +/- 0.04 pmol/mg protein, respectively. Guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (10 muM) did not change the binding, indicating antagonist binding of the ligand. Various EETs and EET analogs (10(-10)-10(-5)M) competed for 20-(125)I-14,15-EE5ZE binding with an order of potency of 11,12-EET = 14,15-EET > 8,9-EET = 14,15-EE5ZE > 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid = 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid. 8,9-Dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid and 11-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid did not compete for binding. The soluble and microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (1-cyclohexyl-3-dodecyl-urea, elaidamide, and 12-hydroxyl-elaidamide) and cytochrome P450 inhibitors (sulfaphenazole and proadifen) did not compete for the binding. However, two cytochrome P450 inhibitors, N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MS-PPOH) and miconazole competed for binding with K(i) of 1558 and 315 nM, respectively. Miconazole and MS-PPOH, but not proadifen, inhibited 14,15-EET-induced relaxations. These findings define an EET antagonist's binding site and support the presence of an EET receptor. The inhibition of binding by some cytochrome P450 inhibitors suggests an alternative mechanism of action for these drugs and could lead to new drug candidates that target the EET binding sites.

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Available from: John R Falck, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "Since some MS-PPOHtreated animals developed moderate to heavy proteinuria, EETs that bind with urinary albumin may have masked the reduction of EETs by epoxygenase inhibition with MS-PPOH. In addition to inhibition of epoxygenases, MS-PPOH has been reported to compete for the binding of a radiolabeled EET antagonist to cell membranes and inhibit 14,15-EET-induced relaxation of bovine coronary artery, suggesting a secondary mechanism by which MS- PPOH has an inhibitory action on the epoxygenase-EET pathway (Chen et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Kidney damage is markedly accelerated by high-salt (HS) intake in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are epoxygenase products of arachidonic acid which possess vasodepressor, natriuretic, and anti-inflammatory activities. We examined whether up-regulation (clofibrate) or inhibition [N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MS-PPOH)] of epoxygenase would alter systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or renal pathology in SHRSP on HS intake (1% NaCl drinking solution). Three weeks of treatment with clofibrate induced renal cortical protein expression of CYP2C23 and increased urinary excretion of EETs compared with vehicle-treated SHRSP. SBP and urinary protein excretion (UPE) were significantly lowered with clofibrate treatment. Kidneys from vehicle-treated SHRSP, which were on HS intake for 3 weeks, demonstrated focal lesions of vascular fibrinoid degeneration, which were markedly attenuated with clofibrate treatment. In contrast, 2 weeks of treatment with the selective epoxygenase inhibitor, MS-PPOH, increased UPE without significantly altering neither urinary EET levels nor SBP. Kidneys from vehicle-treated SHRSP, which were on HS intake for 11 days, demonstrated occasional mild damage whereas kidneys from MS-PPOH-treated rats exhibited widespread malignant nephrosclerosis. These results suggest that pharmacological manipulation of epoxygenase results in divergent effects on renal damage and that interventions to increase EET levels may provide therapeutic strategies for treating salt-sensitive hypertension and renal damage.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 08/2014; 5:187. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00187 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    • "A series of CYP and sEH inhibitors were tested for their ability to displace 20-125 I-14,15-EE-5Z-E from its binding site. The CYP inhibitors miconazole and MS-PPOH inhibited binding of the ligand suggesting that some CYP inhibitors are also EET antagonists (Chen et al., 2009). Identifying the EET receptor remains a subject of active research and an area that has obvious future therapeutic implications since many clinically useful drugs target receptors in their mechanism of action. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid that are produced by the vascular endothelium in responses to various stimuli such as the agonists acetylcholine (ACH) or bradykinin or by shear stress which activates phospholipase A(2) to release arachidonic acid. EETs are important regulators of vascular tone and homeostasis. In the modulation of vascular tone, EETs function as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). In models of vascular inflammation, EETs attenuate inflammatory signaling pathways in both the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle. Likewise, EETs regulate blood vessel formation or angiogenesis by mechanisms that are still not completely understood. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) converts EETs to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and this metabolism limits many of the biological actions of EETs. The recent development of inhibitors of sEH provides an emerging target for pharmacological manipulation of EETs. Additionally, EETs may initiate their biological effects by interacting with a cell surface protein that is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Since GPCRs represent a common target of most drugs, further characterization of the EET receptor and synthesis of specific EET agonists and antagonist can be used to exploit many of the beneficial effects of EETs in vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the contribution of EETs to the regulation of vascular tone, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of targeting the EET pathway in vascular disease will be highlighted.
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