To examine the role of sociodemographic factors and psychosocial adjustment in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) use among adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
A total of 150 adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their caregivers completed measures of general psychological functioning, diabetes functioning, and stressful life events. Blood glucose monitoring (BGM) frequency and glycemic control were also assessed. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between CSII use and sociodemograpic and psychosocial factors.
All logistic regression models were significant, indicating a large proportion of the variance in CSII use was associated with sociodemographic, diabetes-specific and psychosocial variables. Final models showed higher frequency of BGM and having private insurance as significant correlates of CSII use. CSII use was also associated with adolescent and caregiver reports of sharing of responsibilities around diabetes management and negative affect regarding BGM.
Adolescents currently prescribed CSII therapy evidenced key differences from their counterparts using multiple daily injections (MDI) in insurance status, diabetes management behavior, and family functioning related to diabetes. Efforts to understand the role of family factors in the maintenance of CSII therapy with clinical indicators of CSII use may inform treatment effectiveness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether perceived caregiver burden around diabetes management mediated the relationship between caregivers' psychological distress and adolescents' glycemic control.
Across three visits spanning 9 months, caregivers of 147 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms and a measure of perceived burden specific to diabetes management. Adolescents' glycemic control was also measured.
Perceived burden mediated the relationship between caregiver depressive symptoms and adolescents' glycemic control. The overall model was significant, F(10,132) = 5.0, p < .001, R(2) = 0.27. Fifty percent of the relationship was explained by diabetes-specific burden. The relationship between caregiver anxiety symptoms and adolescent glycemic control was partially mediated by diabetes-specific burden, F(10,133) = 5.7, p < .001, R(2) = 0.30, explaining 26% of this relationship.
A variable linking caregiver psychological distress to adolescent glycemic control is perceived caregiver burden around diabetes management. Implications for clinical practice include targeting caregiver psychological functioning and reducing global and diabetes-specific distress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reported frequencies of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) by both adolescents and their caregivers serve as adherence proxies when meter downloads are not available. Yet, correlates of reported BGM frequencies and their predictive utility are understudied.
To identify sociodemographic, psychological, and disease-specific correlates of reported BGM frequencies in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to explore the predictive utility of BGM indices on glycemic control.
Study participants included caregivers and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (N=143, 13-18 yr) receiving diabetes treatment at a tertiary care setting.
At the initial visit, adolescents and caregivers reported on daily BGM frequencies. A sub-sample provided meter downloads. Adolescents also completed a depression inventory. Three months later, adolescents provided blood sampling for A1c assessment.
Multivariate general linear modeling identified that older adolescent age and more depressive symptoms were associated with reports of less frequent BGM. Two stepwise multivariate regression models examined the predictive utility of BGM indices (i.e., adolescent-reported BGM, caregiver-reported BGM, meter download) on glycemic control. Caregiver-reported BGM frequency predicted glycemic control in the absence of meter download data (p<0.001). However, when clinical and contextual variables were included, meter download data were the most robust predictor of glycemic control (p<0.0001).
Meter downloads have the most robust association with glycemic control when contextual variables are considered. Caregiver-reported BGM frequencies can serve as reliable substitutes in the absence of meter download, but they may not be as reliable in adolescents with depressive symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Technology has recently changed type 1 diabetes treatment by introducing several advancements able to improve patients' quality of life. However, despite of several decades of research efforts, the dream of a fully-automated implanted artificial pancreas is quite far from its realization. The need for periodically restoring the implanted battery charge and refilling the implanted insulin reservoir are the main issues, for which invasive surgery, transcutaneous catheters or external portable devices are presently the only solutions. In this paper we propose a novel approach to these issues, describing a totally implanted closed-loop artificial pancreas with a wireless battery charger and a non-invasive strategy for insulin refilling, based on sensorized swallowable "insulin carrier" capsules. Such system has the potential to represent a final solution for diabetes treatment, by fully restoring patients' quality of life.
Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 08/2011; 2011:2849-53. DOI:10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090787
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