Regulated expression of pancreatic triglyceride lipase after rat traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT Pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), an enzyme of digestive system, plays very important roles in the digestion and absorption of lipids. However, its distribution and function in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. In the present study, we mainly investigated the expression and cellular localization of PTL during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Western blot and RT-PCR analysis revealed that PTL was present in normal rat brain cortex. It gradually increased, reached a peak at the 3rd day after TBI, and then decreased. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that PTL was co-expressed with neuron, but had a few colocalizations in astrocytes. When TBI occurred in the rat cortex, the expression of PTL gradually increased, reached the peak at the 3rd day after TBI, and then decreased. Importantly, more PTL was colocalized with astrocytes, which is positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In addition, Western blot detection showed that the 3rd day post injury was not only the proliferation peak indicated by the elevated expression of PCNA, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cyclin D1, but also the apoptotic peak implied by the alteration of caspase-3 and bcl-2. These data suggested that PTL may be involved in the pathophysiology of TBI and PTL may be complicated after injury, more PTL was colocalized with astrocytes. Importantly, injury-induced expression of PTL was colabelled by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (proliferating cells marker), and the western blot for GFAP, PCNA and cyclin D1, showed that 3 days post injury was the proliferation peak, in coincidence to it, the protein level change of caspase-3 and bcl-2 revealed that the stage was peak of apoptotic too. These data suggested that PTL may be involved in the pathophysiology of TBI and that PTL may be implicated in the proliferation of astrocytes and the recovery of neurological outcomes. But the inherent mechanisms remained unknown. Further studies are needed to confirm the exact role of PTL after brain injury.
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol acyl hydrolase) fulfills a key function in dietary fat absorption by hydrolysing triglycerides into diglycerides and subsequently into monoglycerides and free fatty acids. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the human enzyme, a single-chain glycoprotein of 449 amino acids, by X-ray crystallography and established its primary structure by sequencing complementary DNA clones. Enzymatic activity is lost after chemical modification of Ser 152 in the porcine enzyme, indicating that this residue is essential in catalysis, but other data are more consistent with a function in interfacial recognition. Our structural results are evidence that Ser 152 is the nucleophilic residue essential for catalysis. It is located in the larger N-terminal domain at the C-terminal edge of a doubly wound parallel beta-sheet and is part of an Asp-His-Ser triad, which is chemically analogous to, but structurally different from, that in the serine proteases. This putative hydrolytic site is covered by a surface loop and is therefore inaccessible to solvent. Interfacial activation, a characteristic property of lipolytic enzymes acting on water-insoluble substrates at water-lipid interfaces, probably involves a reorientation of this flap, not only in pancreatic lipases but also in the homologous hepatic and lipoprotein lipases.Nature 03/1990; 343(6260):771-4. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Normal neurological function depends on a constant supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the brain. A considerable proportion of essential fatty acids originates from lipoprotein-associated lipids that undergo uptake and/or catabolism at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study aimed at identifying expression and regulation of endothelial lipase (EL) in brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC), major constituents of the BBB. Our results revealed that BCEC are capable of EL synthesis and secretion. Overexpression of EL resulted in enhanced hydrolysis of extracellular high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated sn-2-labeled [(14)C]20 : 4 phosphatidylcholine. [(14)C]20 : 4 was recovered in cellular lipids, indicating re-uptake and intracellular re-esterification. To investigate local regulation of EL in the cerebrovasculature, BCEC were cultured in the presence of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)- and liver X receptor (LXR)-agonists, known to regulate HDL levels. These experiments revealed that 24(S)OH-cholesterol (a LXR agonist), bezafibrate (a PPARalpha agonist), or pioglitazone (a PPARgamma agonist) resulted in down-regulation of EL mRNA and protein levels. Our findings implicate that EL could generate fatty acids at the BBB for transport to deeper regions of the brain as building blocks for membrane phospholipids. In addition PPAR and LXR agonists appear to contribute to HDL homeostasis at the BBB by regulating EL expression.Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2005; 94(1):109-19. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have studied the involvement of the thrombin receptor [protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1)] in astrogliosis, because extravasation of PAR-1 activators, such as thrombin, into brain parenchyma can occur after blood-brain barrier breakdown in a number of CNS disorders. PAR1-/- animals show a reduced astrocytic response to cortical stab wound, suggesting that PAR-1 activation plays a key role in astrogliosis associated with glial scar formation after brain injury. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the selective activation of PAR-1 in vivo induces astrogliosis. The mechanisms by which PAR-1 stimulates glial proliferation appear to be related to the ability of PAR-1 receptor signaling to induce sustained extracellular receptor kinase (ERK) activation. In contrast to the transient activation of ERK by cytokines and growth factors, PAR-1 stimulation induces a sustained ERK activation through its coupling to multiple G-protein-linked signaling pathways, including Rho kinase. This sustained ERK activation appears to regulate astrocytic cyclin D1 levels and astrocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo. We propose that this PAR-1-mediated mechanism underlying astrocyte proliferation will operate whenever there is sufficient injury-induced blood-brain barrier breakdown to allow extravasation of PAR-1 activators.Journal of Neuroscience 05/2005; 25(17):4319-29. · 6.91 Impact Factor