Regulated expression of pancreatic triglyceride lipase after rat traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT Pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), an enzyme of digestive system, plays very important roles in the digestion and absorption of lipids. However, its distribution and function in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. In the present study, we mainly investigated the expression and cellular localization of PTL during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Western blot and RT-PCR analysis revealed that PTL was present in normal rat brain cortex. It gradually increased, reached a peak at the 3rd day after TBI, and then decreased. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that PTL was co-expressed with neuron, but had a few colocalizations in astrocytes. When TBI occurred in the rat cortex, the expression of PTL gradually increased, reached the peak at the 3rd day after TBI, and then decreased. Importantly, more PTL was colocalized with astrocytes, which is positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In addition, Western blot detection showed that the 3rd day post injury was not only the proliferation peak indicated by the elevated expression of PCNA, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cyclin D1, but also the apoptotic peak implied by the alteration of caspase-3 and bcl-2. These data suggested that PTL may be involved in the pathophysiology of TBI and PTL may be complicated after injury, more PTL was colocalized with astrocytes. Importantly, injury-induced expression of PTL was colabelled by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (proliferating cells marker), and the western blot for GFAP, PCNA and cyclin D1, showed that 3 days post injury was the proliferation peak, in coincidence to it, the protein level change of caspase-3 and bcl-2 revealed that the stage was peak of apoptotic too. These data suggested that PTL may be involved in the pathophysiology of TBI and that PTL may be implicated in the proliferation of astrocytes and the recovery of neurological outcomes. But the inherent mechanisms remained unknown. Further studies are needed to confirm the exact role of PTL after brain injury.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The protein TFIIB is a general transcription initiation factor that plays a pivotal role in the preinitiation complex (PIC) and selects the transcription initiation site. However, its distribution and function in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. In the present study, we mainly investigated the expression and cellular localization of TFIIB during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Western blot analysis revealed that TFIIB was present in normal rat brain cortex. It gradually increased, reached a peak at the 5th day after TBI, and then decreased. Importantly, more TFIIB was colocalized with astrocytes and microglia, which are largely proliferated. In addition, Western blot detection showed that the 5th day post injury was also the proliferation peak indicated by the elevated expression of PCNA. Importantly, injury-induced expression of TFIIB was colabelled by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (proliferating cells marker). These data suggested that TFIIB may be implicated in the proliferation of astrocytes and microglia and the recovery of neurological outcomes. But the inherent mechanisms remained unknown. Further studies are needed to confirm the exact role of TFIIB after brain injury.Journal of molecular histology 06/2011; 42(3):265-71. · 1.75 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Neurological dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by both the primary injury and a secondary cascade of biochemical and metabolic events. Since TBI can be caused by a variety of mechanisms, numerous models have been developed to facilitate its study. The most prevalent models are controlled cortical impact and fluid percussion injury. Both typically use "sham" (craniotomy alone) animals as controls. However, the sham operation is objectively damaging, and we hypothesized that the craniotomy itself may cause a unique brain injury distinct from the impact injury. To test this hypothesis, 38 adult female rats were assigned to one of three groups: control (anesthesia only); craniotomy performed by manual trephine; or craniotomy performed by electric dental drill. The rats were then subjected to behavioral testing, imaging analysis, and quantification of cortical concentrations of cytokines. Both craniotomy methods generate visible MRI lesions that persist for 14 days. The initial lesion generated by the drill technique is significantly larger than that generated by the trephine. Behavioral data mirrored lesion volume. For example, drill rats have significantly impaired sensory and motor responses compared to trephine or naïve rats. Finally, of the seven tested cytokines, KC-GRO and IFN-γ showed significant increases in both craniotomy models compared to naïve rats. We conclude that the traditional sham operation as a control confers profound proinflammatory, morphological, and behavioral damage, which confounds interpretation of conventional experimental brain injury models. Any experimental design incorporating "sham" procedures should distinguish among sham, experimentally injured, and healthy/naïve animals, to help reduce confounding factors.Journal of neurotrauma 12/2010; 28(3):359-69. · 4.25 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract CXCL12 and its physiologic receptor CXCR4 are involved in controlling cell survival, proliferation and migration in adult tissues. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CXCL12 on cortical neuron apoptosis in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the potential mechanisms involved. At 3 days after TBI, in situ terminal transferase d-UTP nick-end labeling assay (TUNEL) showed that the apoptotic index (AI) deceased significantly in the CXCL12 treatment group compared with the control group (p<0.05). Immunofluorescence double-labeled staining revealed that most of the TUNEL positive cells were NeuN positive neurons. The change trends of active caspase-3 expression were similar as those of the AI. The Bcl-2/Bax ratio was up-regulated in the CXCL12 group compared with the control group. However, the effect of CXCL12 could be partially reverted by the additional use of AMD3100 (a kind of antagonist of CXCR4) (p<0.05). Our results indicated that after TBI in rats CXCL12 combing CXCR4 receptors could inhibit the caspase-3 pathway by up-regulating Bcl-2/Bax ratio, which protect neurons from apoptosis.The International journal of neuroscience 08/2013; · 0.86 Impact Factor