Hypoxia induced paclitaxel resistance in human ovarian cancers via hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha.
ABSTRACT Chemoresistance severely restricts the anti-cancer medicines from effectively treating human ovarian cancer, which has been shown to develop and survive in the specific hypoxic environments. To understand the relationship between hypoxia and chemoresistance, we investigated the potential role of hypoxia in the pathophysiology of chemoresistance, especially focusing on hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha).
The A2780 ovarian cancer cells are cultured in gradient hypoxic conditions (5% O(2), 3% O(2), and 1% O(2)), the sensitivity of the cells to paclitaxel and the cell inhibitory rate were determined by MTT assay. The expression and the transcriptional activity of HIF-1alpha were examined by western blot, Immunocytochemical staining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the dual luciferase reporter system, respectively. The cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, we silence HIF-1alpha expression by performing RNA interference.
MTT assay demonstrates that hypoxic challenge substantially reduces the susceptibility of cells to paclitaxel at all the tested concentrations. Coincident with this is the activation of HIF-1alpha in nuclear, which displays the increased transcriptional activity and high protein expression. Hypoxic manipulation (5% O(2), approximately 1% O(2)) significantly increased the cell population at G0/G1. Interestingly, knockdown of endogenous HIF-1alpha significantly alleviates the chemoresistance and promotes G1/S transition with the increased sensitivity of A2780 cells to paclitaxel under each hypoxic condition.
It suggests that HIF-1alpha, stimulated by hypoxia, exerts a pivotal role in chemoresistance by G0/G1 arrest. Eliminating hypoxic conditions or silencing HIF-1alpha by siRNA might provide a potent tool to enhance paclitaxel effectiveness in treatment of human ovarian cancer.
Article: Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha, and von Hippel-Lindau protein in epithelial ovarian neoplasms and allelic loss of von Hippel-Lindau gene: nuclear expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian carcinoma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional factor with important roles in tumor biology. To clarify the possible involvement of the HIF-alpha subunit and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma, we analyzed the immunohistochemical expressions of HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha, and VHL in 107 cases of epithelial ovarian tumors. In addition, we examined loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at VHL gene loci. The frequency of the cytoplasmic expression of HIF-2alpha in carcinomas was higher than that in benign and borderline tumors (P < .0001). Furthermore, the nuclear expression of HIF-1alpha and the cytoplasmic expression of HIF-2alpha were significantly higher in tumors of FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stages III and IV than in those of stages I and II. On the other hand, the cytoplasmic expression of HIF-1alpha did not show differences among histological malignancies. There was a positive correlation between nuclear HIF-1alpha expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (rho = 0.320, P < .001). Although LOH at the VHL gene locus was frequent in ovarian carcinomas (24%), there is no significant correlation between LOH and loss of VHL expression. In 22 clear cell carcinomas, VHL expression showed a significantly negative correlation with the nuclear expression of HIF-1alpha (rho = -0.529, P = .0153). The log-rank test showed that nuclear positive immunostaining for HIF-1alpha (P = .002) and cytoplasmic positive immunostaining for HIF-2alpha (P = .0112) in tumor cells are associated with poor prognosis of patients with ovarian carcinoma. Multivariate analysis also showed that the nuclear expression of HIF-1alpha is an independent prognostic factor. These results show that the HIF-alpha subunit represents an important biomarker in the evaluation of the prognosis of patients with ovarian carcinoma.Human Pathlogy 09/2007; 38(9):1310-20. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite reservations regarding potential toxicities, small molecule-mediated blockade of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transcription factor has emerged as a viable anti-cancer strategy in vivo. Recent experiments by Welsh et al. revealed unprecedented anti-tumor responses of various aggressive solid tumors to the HIF-1-inhibitory small molecule drug PX-478. Compared with other anti-cancer drugs, PX-478 had markedly improved regression, growth delay and log10 cell kill profiles, particularly against large tumors that are normally refractory to small molecule drug therapy. Importantly, pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles were within acceptable limits, providing rationale for the clinical development of HIF-1 inhibitors in general. Though the mechanism of action for PX-478 is not completely understood, inhibition of glycolysis rather than angiogenesis appeared to be the primary mode of anti-cancer activity.Cancer biology & therapy 07/2004; 3(6):503-4. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The majority of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are diagnosed with advanced disease involving sites such as the upper abdomen, pleural space, and paraaortic lymph nodes. The standard therapy for advanced disease requires maximal cytoreductive surgery followed by postoperative platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy. Despite maximal primary surgical effort and postoperative standard chemotherapy long-term survival of patients with advanced stage III or IV disease ranges from 30% to less than 10% due to early and late relapse or primary progressive disease. Facing the highly lethal nature of epithelial ovarian carcinoma, the clinical course of advanced disease is difficult to predict in an individual patient. This heterogeneity of clinical outcome in patients with ovarian carcinoma suggests that reliable prognostic and/or predictive factors would be of potential clinical value and new treatment options are warranted in the future. In the light of recently published studies we summarize the clinical features and the diagnostic, operative and postoperative management of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We furthermore address the importance of the pathologist during the clinical course of patients with ovarian carcinoma. The issue of timing between surgery and chemotherapy in the setting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma is being highlighted as well as the significance of new diagnostic and therapeutic options with regard to accurate predictive markers, that might identify patients who are appropriate candidates for novel therapeutic approaches.Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie 02/2005; 89:101-10.