Production of a fungistatic substance by Pseudallescheria boydii isolated from soil amended with vegetable tissues and its significance.
ABSTRACT Four fungal isolates that were able to use vegetable tissues for multiplication in soil were isolated and identified as Pseudallescheria boydii based on morphological characteristics and ITS sequence similarity. When grown in broth prepared from the same vegetable tissues used in soil amendment, all these isolates of P. boydii produced a substance capable of reducing the disease incidence of black leaf spot of spoon cabbage caused by Alternaria brassicicola and inhibiting the germination of A. brassicicola conidia. The substance, which was fungistatic, was very stable under high temperature and high or low pH value. It was soluble in polar solvents and insoluble in non-polar solvents. Molecular weight estimation and ion exchange ability tests suggest that the fungistatic compound has a molecular weight between 500 and 1,000 and has no charge on its molecule. Results from this study suggest the possession of a strong competitive saprophytic ability by P. boydii, which in turn may explain the widespread occurrence of this human pathogen in soil. Production of a fungistatic substance when P. boydii was grown in broth prepared from vegetable tissues suggests the importance of antibiotic production in its competitive saprophytic colonization of organic matters in soil.
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ABSTRACT: Two novel isobenzofuranone derivatives, pseudaboydins A (1) and B (2), along with five known compounds, including (R)-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxybenzofuran (3), (R)-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-methoxybenzofuran (4), 3,3'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethyldiphenyl ether (5), 3-(3-methoxy-5-methylphenoxy)-5-methylphenol (6) and (-)-regiolone (7), were isolated from the culture broth of the marine fungus, Pseudallescheria boydii, associated with the starfish, Acanthaster planci. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were determined by CD spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of 1-4 were evaluated. Pseudaboydin A (1) showed moderate cytotoxic activity against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line HONE1, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line SUNE1 and human glandular lung cancer cell line GLC82 with IC50 values of 37.1, 46.5 and 87.2 μM, respectively.Marine Drugs 01/2014; 12(7):4188-4199. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry.Sensors 12/2011; 11(1):1105-76. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pseudallescheria boydii is a filamentous fungus that causes a wide array of infections that can affect practically all the organs of the human body. The treatment of pseudallescheriosis is difficult since P. boydii exhibits intrinsic resistance to the majority of antifungal drugs used in the clinic and the virulence attributes expressed by this fungus are unknown. The study of the secretion of molecules is an important approach for understanding the pathogenicity of fungi. With this task in mind, we have shown that mycelial cells of P. boydii were able to actively secrete proteins into the extracellular environment; some of them were recognized by antibodies present in the serum of a patient with pseudallescheriosis. Additionally, molecules secreted by P. boydii induced in vitro irreversible damage in pulmonary epithelial cells. Subsequently, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry was carried out in order to start the construction of a map of secreted proteins from P. boydii mycelial cells. The two-dimensional map showed that most of the proteins (around 100 spots) were focused at pH ranging from 4 to 7 with molecular masses ranging from 14 to >117 kDa. Fifty spots were randomly selected, of which 30 (60%) were consistently identified, while 20 (40%) spots generated peptides that showed no resemblance to any known protein from other fungi and/or MS with low quality. Notably, we identified proteins involved in metabolic pathways (energy/carbohydrate, nucleotide, and fatty acid), cell wall remodeling, RNA processing, signaling, protein degradation/nutrition, translation machinery, drug elimination and/or detoxification, protection against environmental stress, cytoskeleton/movement proteins, and immunogenic molecules. Since the genome of this fungus is not sequenced, we performed enzymatic and immunodetection assays in order to corroborate the presence of some released proteins. The identification of proteins actively secreted by P. boydii provides important new information for understanding immune modulation and provides important new perspectives on the biology of this intriguing fungus.Journal of Proteome Research 12/2011; 11(1):172-88. · 5.06 Impact Factor