Hepatitis B and C virus co-infection in Nigerian patients with HIV infection.

Medicine Department, NHA, Abuja, Nigeria.
The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries (Impact Factor: 1.27). 06/2009; 3(5):369-75. DOI: 10.3855/jidc.245
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We set out to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses among human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals and its impact on pattern of presentation.
A serological study for hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses was performed on 260 HIV-positive individuals. These patients were tested for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody.
Thirty (11.5%) patients tested positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, six (2.3%) tested positive for anti-hepatitis C virus antibody, four (1.5%) were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus and the overall prevalence was 15.4% . Individuals younger than 40 years of age were more affected, and the odds ratio of a female being co-infected was 1.2, 25% versus 75% p value = 0.03. The prevalence of HIV and hepatitis co-infection rises with age except for hepatitis C. There was no significant difference in the mean levels of liver enzymes (AST, ALT) among the various groups. The groups differ significantly in their mean CD4 count: it was lowest for those co-infected with hepatitis B and hepatitis C; 106 cells/mm(3), 171 cells/mm(3) for those with HIV alone; and the highest value of 260 cells/mm(3) was obtained in those who tested positive for anti-HCV. Scarification marks and multiple blood transfusions were more common among those infected. There was no case of intravenous drug abuse identified.
This low frequency of HIV/HCV co-infection is probably due to the uncommon intravenous drug abuse in this population. Co-infection with hepatitis B virus is common among our HIV-infected patients and should be a major consideration in the initiation and choice of therapy.

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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence and determine the clinical presentation of risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-infected patients in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Infections from HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses constitute a major public health challenge in sub- Saharan Africa, and concurrent morbidities from liver diseases among HIV patients have also been observed due to co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. Free testing of HBV and HCV are not provided alongside free HIV treatment in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected individuals, and describe the socio-demographic features and correlates of HIV and HBV/HCV co-infected patients at Ikole Ekiti, Nigeria. This was a cross- sectional study among HIV individuals attending Specialist Hospital, Ikole Ekiti, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty eight (158) HIV infected individuals were first screened and later tested for marker of HBV and HCV using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and their demography information were collected. Data were analysed using packages within SPSS software and a p <0.05 was regarded as significant. Prevalence rates of Hepatitis B and C virus infections obtained were 5.7% and 1.9%, respectively. Two (1.3%) had triple infection of HIV/HBV/HCV. The CD4 count of the sample tested ranged from 2 to 2140cell/mm3 with a mean value of 210cell/mm3 . About 62.5% of them had CD4 T cell count less than 200 cells/mm3. The mean ALT and AST are 23.8 IU/L and 25.9 IU/L respectively. In conclusion, Co-infection with hepatitis B and C virus is common among HIV-infected individuals and this confirm the necessity for routine screening for this markers before initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Also, HBV negative individuals should be immunized with HBV vaccine to improve the prognosis of their HIV status. Keywords: Coinfection, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C , HIV, ELISA
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To determine the prevalence of HBV co-infection in HIV-infected children and compare the baseline laboratory profile of mono-infected and co-infected patients. Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN)-supported HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria between January 2008 and December 2012. Methodology: We reviewed the clinical records of 452 treatment-naïve children aged 2 months to 15 years confirmed to be HIV positive with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for children <18 months or Western blot for children ≥18 months. The baseline laboratory tests included: HBsAg, plasma viral load and alanine transaminase (ALT), CD4+T cell count for children ≥5years or CD4+T cell % for children <5years. Results: Three hundred and ninety-four (87.2%) were mono-infected with HIV while 58 (12.8%) were co-infected with HIV and HBV (HIV/HBV). At baseline, the median viral load was 4.6 log copies/mL for mono-infected compared to 4.7 log copies/mL for HIV/HBV (P=.48). The median CD4+T cell count was 366 cells/µL for mono-infected compared to 332 cells/µL for HIV/HBV (P=.64). The median CD4+T cell % was 19% for mono-infected compared to 17% for HIV/HBV (P =.29). The median ALT level for the whole cohort was 23 IU/L for mono-infected compared to 26 IU/L for HIV/HBV (P=.15). However the median ALT level for mono-infected children aged 11-15 years was 28IU/L compared to 43 IU/L for co-infected children of same age (P =.008). Conclusion: A high rate of hepatitis B co-infection was observed in HIV-infected children at our centre; however more severe HIV disease was not observed. Older children co-infected with HBV had significantly higher ALT levels compared to their mono-infected counterparts. Early detection is therefore necessary in order to develop an appropriate treatment plan for children co-infected with HIV and HBV
    International Journal of tropical disease and Health. 07/2014; 4(7):773-781.

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