Clinical and Resistance Consequences of Misquantification of Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in Samples from an HIV-1 Subtype G-Infected Patient
ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load is the main marker used to monitor antiviral treatment efficacy and resistance. We report a case of underquantification of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from an HIV-1 subtype G-infected woman, leading to delayed diagnosis of HIV encephalitis and to the emergence of drug resistance.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Thomas Mourez, Jun 16, 2014
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- "As this subtype represents only 11% of all circulating strains worldwide , and as it has been largely shown that the wide diversity of HIV-1 could lead to major quantification discrepancies    , it is relevant to evaluate each new version of a quantification assay. Indeed, pVL under-quantification has major clinical repercussions and delays the detection of drug resistance, as we have shown in our previous research . Moreover, these discrepancies are even more pronounced with the highly divergent non-M (N, O, and P) groups of HIV-1  . "
ABSTRACT: An improved version of the bioMérieux NucliSENS(®) EasyQ(®) HIV-1 v2.0 has been introduced to overcome the underquantification observed with previous versions, especially with non-B HIV-1 subtypes. Comparing bioMérieux NucliSENS(®) EasyQ(®) HIV-1 v2.0 versus Roche Cobas CA/CTM v2.0 and Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assays for HIV-1 group M and non-M (N, O, P) viral load measurement. The three assays were tested in parallel on 103HIV-1 group M plasma samples, and on non-group M HIV-1 culture supernatants. Values obtained for the 103HIV-1 group M plasma samples tested with bioMérieux assay showed good overall correlation compared to the 2 others. The Roche Cobas assay gave higher values than the bioMérieux assay, while Abbott and bioMérieux both displayed similar results. However, analysis showed a wider dispersion in results when comparing the bioMérieux NucliSENS(®) EasyQ(®) HIV-1 v2.0 and the other 2 techniques. All data taken into account, we observed frequent discrepancies in quantification, of the plasma samples and major differences above 1log in 10/72 (13.8%). The quantification of non-M HIV groups in culture supernatant has shown variable results, with better quantification of HIV-O and of HIV-N respectively with the Abbott assay and the bioMérieux assay. The bioMérieux NucliSENS(®) EasyQ(®) HIV-1 v2.0 showed improved sensitivity to non-B HIV-M subtypes compared to previous versions. Notwithstanding, we observed frequent discrepancies and a wide dispersion in results when comparing bioMérieux NucliSENS(®) EasyQ(®) HIV-1 v2.0 and the other 2 techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 08/2015; 71:76-81. DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2015.08.007 · 3.02 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Design of single-mode photonic crystal optical waveguldes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Summary form only given. Photonic crystals have inspired a lot of interest recently due to their potential for controlling the propagation of light. Photonic crystals with line defects can be used for guiding light. A conventional method for making a two-dimensional (2D) dielectric-core photonic crystal (or PBG) waveguide is to remove one row of air columns. This usually results in a multimode waveguide. We present a more systematic way of making single-mode dielectric-core 2D PBG waveguides. It was recently shown that the main guiding mechanisms in dielectric-core PBG waveguides are total internal reflection and distributed Bragg reflection (DBR). The confinement of the guided mode in the center slab of the waveguide suggests that the properties of such modes can be modified by modifying the guiding structure in the vicinity of the center slabLasers and Electro-Optics, 2001. CLEO '01. Technical Digest. Summaries of papers presented at the Conference on; 02/2001
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ABSTRACT: In the last 25 years, HIV-1, the retrovirus responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), has gone from being an "inherently untreatable" infectious agent to one eminently susceptible to a range of approved therapies. During a five-year period, starting in the mid-1980s, my group at the National Cancer Institute played a role in the discovery and development of the first generation of antiretroviral agents, starting in 1985 with Retrovir (zidovudine, AZT) in a collaboration with scientists at the Burroughs-Wellcome Company (now GlaxoSmithKline). We focused on AZT and related congeners in the dideoxynucleoside family of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), taking them from the laboratory to the clinic in response to the pandemic of AIDS, then a terrifying and lethal disease. These drugs proved, above all else, that HIV-1 infection is treatable, and such proof provided momentum for new therapies from many sources, directed at a range of viral targets, at a pace that has rarely if ever been matched in modern drug development. Antiretroviral therapy has brought about a substantial decrease in the death rate due to HIV-1 infection, changing it from a rapidly lethal disease into a chronic manageable condition, compatible with very long survival. This has special implications within the classic boundaries of public health around the world, but at the same time in certain regions may also affect a cycle of economic and civil instability in which HIV-1/AIDS is both cause and consequence. Many challenges remain, including (1) the life-long duration of therapy; (2) the ultimate role of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); (3) the cardiometabolic side-effects or other toxicities of long-term therapy; (4) the emergence of drug-resistance and viral genetic diversity (non-B subtypes); (5) the specter of new cross-species transmissions from established retroviral reservoirs in apes and Old World monkeys; and (6) the continued pace of new HIV-1 infections in many parts of the world. All of these factors make refining current therapies and developing new therapeutic paradigms essential priorities, topics covered in articles within this special issue of Antiviral Research. Fortunately, there are exciting new insights into the biology of HIV-1, its interaction with cellular resistance factors, and novel points of attack for future therapies. Moreover, it is a short journey from basic research to public health benefit around the world. The current science will lead to new therapeutic strategies with far-reaching implications in the HIV-1/AIDS pandemic. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol. 85, issue 1, 2010.Antiviral research 11/2009; 85(1):1-18. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.10.002 · 3.94 Impact Factor