Article

Autistic features in girls from a psychiatric sample are strongly associated with a low 2D:4D ratio.

Erasmus Medical Center, Sophia Children's Hospital, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Autism (Impact Factor: 2.27). 09/2009; 13(5):511-21. DOI: 10.1177/1362361309335720
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Autistic features such as deficits in social interactions and communication have been associated with a low 2D:4D ratio in normal children.This study assessed this association in a large sample of children with a variety of psychiatric disorders (n = 35 girls and n = 147 boys). Autistic features were assessed with a highly valid and reliable measure (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic). Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and autistic features were computed separately for boys and girls. Some small negative correlations (r = -0.17 and r = -0.19) were found in the right hand for boys; however, particularly in girls, large negative correlations (r = -0.51 to r = -0.64) were found in the left hand. A low 2D:4D ratio in girls was highly predictive of the presence of autistic features. Thus, a low ratio could possibly be used as a diagnostic predictor in clinical practice.

1 Follower
 · 
110 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been postulated that androgen overexposure in a susceptible person leads to excessive brain masculinization and the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. In this study, the responses to estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on B-lymphocytes from ASD subjects and controls are compared. B cells were obtained from 11 ASD subjects, their unaffected fraternal twins, and nontwin siblings. Controls were obtained from a different cell bank. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and sodium 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction levels were measured after incubation with different concentrations of E2, DHT, and DDE. XTT/LDH ratio, representative of mitochondria number per cell, was calculated. E2, DHT, and DDE all cause "U"-shaped growth curves, as measured by LDH levels. ASD B cells show less growth depression compared to siblings and controls (P < 0.01). They also have reduced XTT/LDH ratios (P < 0.01) when compared to external controls, whereas siblings had values of XTT/LDH between ASD and external controls. B-lymphocytes from people with ASD exhibit a differential response to E2, DHT, and hormone disruptors in regard to cell growth and mitochondrial upregulation when compared to non-ASD siblings and external controls. Specifically, ASD B-lymphocytes show significantly less growth depression and less mitochondrial upregulation when exposed to these effectors. A mitochondrial deficit in ASD individuals is implied.
    Journal of Toxicology 11/2013; 2013:159810. DOI:10.1155/2013/159810
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prenatal oestrogen/testosterone exposure is known to be involved in early brain development. In this context, the ratio of the index finger to ring finger length (2D:4D) has been put forward as an indicator of the intrauterine sex hormonal level. A previous study by Collinson et al. (2010) examined 2D:4D ratios in Asian patients with schizophrenia and found an increased 2D:4D pattern in male patients compared to male healthy controls. In the current study, we tried to replicate the result of this study on the 2D:4D ratio in schizophrenia patients and controls in a Chinese sample. Moreover, we investigated the link between 2D:4D ratios and schizotypal personality traits in the participants of the study. No significant difference between cases and controls in 2D:4D ratios for both hands could be observed. However, a positive association between right 2D:4D ratio and schizotypal personality traits was found in healthy controls (also in the male and female subsample) suggesting that a high 2D:4D ratio could represent a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia in healthy males and females. Therefore, the inclusion of personality measures to study the link between the digit ratio and schizophrenia might help to provide insights in a potential continuum from healthy to schizophrenic behavior
    Asian Journal of Psychiatry 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2014.01.005
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to increased androgens has been implicated in both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and autism spectrum conditions (ASC), suggesting that PCOS may be increased among women with ASC. One study suggested elevated steroidopathic symptoms ('steroidopathy') in women with ASC. As the symptoms are not independent, we conducted a latent class analysis (LCA). The objectives of the current study are: (1) to test if these findings replicate in a larger sample; and (2) to use LCA to uncover affected clusters of women with ASC. We tested two groups of women, screened using the Autism Spectrum Quotient - Group 1: n = 415 women with ASC (mean age 36.39 +/- 11.98 years); and Group 2: n = 415 controls (mean age 39.96 +/- 11.92 years). All participants completed the Testosterone-related Medical Questionnaire online. A multiple-group LCA was used to identify differences in latent class structure between women with ASC and controls. There were significant differences in frequency of steroid-related conditions and symptoms between women with ASC and controls. A two-class semi-constrained model best fit the data. Based on response patterns, we identified the classes as 'Typical' and 'Steroidopathic'. The prevalence of the 'Steroidopathic' class was significantly increased within the ASC group (DeltaG2 = 15, df =1, P = 0.0001). In particular, we confirmed higher frequencies of epilepsy, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, severe acne, gender dysphoria, and transsexualism, and differences in sexual preference in women with ASC. Women with ASC are at increased risk for symptoms and conditions linked to steroids. LCA revealed this steroidopathy despite the apparent underdiagnosis of PCOS.
    Molecular Autism 04/2014; 5(1):27. DOI:10.1186/2040-2392-5-27 · 5.49 Impact Factor