Catabolism of 4-hydroxyacids and 4-hydroxynonenal via 4-hydroxy-4-phosphoacyl-CoAs.
ABSTRACT 4-Hydroxyacids are products of ubiquitously occurring lipid peroxidation (C(9), C(6)) or drugs of abuse (C(4), C(5)). We investigated the catabolism of these compounds using a combination of metabolomics and mass isotopomer analysis. Livers were perfused with various concentrations of unlabeled and labeled saturated 4-hydroxyacids (C(4) to C(11)) or 4-hydroxynonenal. All the compounds tested form a new class of acyl-CoA esters, 4-hydroxy-4-phosphoacyl-CoAs, characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, accurate mass spectrometry, and (31)P-NMR. All 4-hydroxyacids with five or more carbons are metabolized by two new pathways. The first and major pathway, which involves 4-hydroxy-4-phosphoacyl-CoAs, leads in six steps to the isomerization of 4-hydroxyacyl-CoA to 3-hydroxyacyl-CoAs. The latter are intermediates of physiological beta-oxidation. The second and minor pathway involves a sequence of beta-oxidation, alpha-oxidation, and beta-oxidation steps. In mice deficient in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, high plasma concentrations of 4-hydroxybutyrate result in high concentrations of 4-hydroxy-4-phospho-butyryl-CoA in brain and liver. The high concentration of 4-hydroxy-4-phospho-butyryl-CoA may be related to the cerebral dysfunction of subjects ingesting 4-hydroxybutyrate and to the mental retardation of patients with 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria. Our data illustrate the potential of the combination of metabolomics and mass isotopomer analysis for pathway discovery.
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ABSTRACT: Glycolyl-CoA can be formed during the course of the beta-oxidation by rat liver mitochondria of 4-hydroxybutyrate. The existence of this beta-oxidation has been previously supported by the occurrence of 4-hydroxybutyrate and its beta-oxidation catabolites in urine from patients with 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, an inborn error of gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism due to the deficiency of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. The characteristics of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of 4-hydroxybutyrate were, in rat liver, compared with those of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of butyrate. The inhibition by malonate of the oxidation of 4-hydroxybutyrate was about twofold weaker than that of oxidation of butyrate, whereas both oxidations were abolished by preincubating the mitochondria with 1 mM valproic acid, a known inhibitor of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Mitochondria from rat kidney cortex were demonstrated to catalyse, as previously shown for hepatic mitochondria, the carnitine-dependent oxidation of 12-hydroxylauroyl-CoA-omega-Hydroxymonocarboxylyl-CoAs are thus concluded to be precursors of glycolyl-CoA also in rat kidney cortex. In addition, 3-hydroxypyruvate was found to be a precursor of glycolyl-CoA, since it was oxidized by bovine heart pyruvate dehydrogenase with a cofactor requirement similar to that of pyruvate oxidation. Glycolyl-CoA was a substrate of carnitine acetyltransferase (pigeon breast muscle). Pig heart citrate synthase was capable of catalyzing the condensation of glycolyl-CoA with oxaloacetate. The product of this reaction induced low NADH production rates dependent on the addition of porcine heart aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase.Biochemistry and Cell Biology 06/1990; 68(5):846-51. · 2.67 Impact Factor