Modulation of bone marrow stromal cell functions in infectious diseases by toll-like receptor ligands.

NIH, NIDCR, CSDB, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Journal of Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.74). 09/2009; 88(1):5-10. DOI: 10.1007/s00109-009-0523-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs, or as they are frequently referred to as mesenchymal stem cells) have been long known to support hematopoiesis and to regenerate bone, cartilage, and adipose tissue. In the last decade, however, a vast amount of data surfaced in the literature to suggest new roles for these cells including tissue regeneration and immunomodulation. A great number of review articles appeared that summarize these new data and focus on different aspects of the physiology of these cells. In this present short review, we will try to summarize the available data based on both mouse and human cells describing how the function of BMSCs might be affected by an infectious environment. These data strongly support the idea that different toll-like receptor ligands can lead to substantial changes in the function of BMSCs that affect their proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and their production and release of immunomodulatory factors.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been suggested to participate in immune regulation and airway repair/remodeling. TGF-β1 is critical in the recruitment of stem/progenitor cells for tissue repair, remodeling, and cell differentiation. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of TGF-β1 in MSC migration in allergic asthma. We examined nestin expression (a marker for MSCs) and TGF-β1 signaling activation in airways in cockroach allergen extract (CRE)-induced mouse models. Compared with control mice, there were increased nestin(+) cells in airways and higher levels of active TGF-β1 in serum and p-Smad2/3 expression in lungs of CRE-treated mice. Increased activation of TGF-β1 signaling was also found in CRE-treated MSCs. We then assessed MSC migration induced by conditioned medium from CRE-challenged human epithelium in air/liquid interface culture in Transwell assays. MSC migration was stimulated by epithelial-conditioned medium, but was significantly inhibited by either TGF-β1-neutralizing Ab or TβR1 inhibitor. Intriguingly, increased migration of MSCs from blood and bone marrow to the airway was also observed after systemic injection of GFP(+) MSCs and from bone marrow of Nes-GFP mice following CRE challenge. Furthermore, TGF-β1-neutralizing Ab inhibited the CRE-induced MSC recruitment, but promoted airway inflammation. Finally, we investigated the role of MSCs in modulating CRE-induced T cell response and found that MSCs significantly inhibited CRE-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-γ) by CD4(+) T cells. These results suggest that TGF-β1 may be a key promigratory factor in recruiting MSCs to the airways in mouse models of asthma.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2014; 192(10). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1303461 · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Viral pneumonia is a major cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Anti-inflammatory therapies for viral-induced lung injury show promise in preclinical models. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent, self-renewing cells that secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines and epithelial and endothelial growth factors. We inoculated mice intranasally with influenza A (murine-adapted PR8) or PBS, and sacrificed at multiple time points after infection for measures of lung injury and viral load. We report that influenza induces marked, long-lasting dysfunction of the alveolar-capillary barrier peaking at one week but lasting longer than 3 weeks post-infection. Weight loss, commonly employed as a criterion for euthanasia (and hence "survival") was found to be poorly predictive of the severity of lung injury at its peak; rather, persistent weight loss 11 days post-infection identified mice with impaired injury resolution. Murine and human bone-marrow derived MSCs (obtained from the NIH repository) were then administered intravenously during the rapid phase of injury progression. Murine MSCs (mMSCs) given twice 24 hours apart failed to improve weight loss, lung water, BAL inflammation, or histology. However, mMSCs prevented influenza-induced thrombocytosis and caused a modest reduction in lung viral load at day 7. Human MSCs administered intravenously showed a similar lack of efficacy. The results demonstrate that the influenza murine model bears important similarities to the slow resolution of ARDS in patients. Despite their potent therapeutic effects in many models of acute inflammation and lung injury, MSCs do not improve influenza-mediated lung injury in mice.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 07/2014; 307(5). DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00110.2014 · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Impairment of tissue fluid homeostasis and migration of inflammatory cells across the vascular endothelial barrier are crucial factors in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). The goal for treatment of ALI is to target pathways that lead to profound dysregulation of the lung endothelial barrier. Although studies have shown that chemical epigenetic modifiers can limit lung inflammation in experimental ALI models, studies to date have not examined efficacy of a combination of DNA methyl transferase inhibitor 5-Aza 2-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (herein referred to as Aza+TSA) after endotoxemia-induced mouse lung injury. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with Aza+TSA after lipopolysaccharide induction of ALI through epigenetic modification of lung endothelial cells prevents inflammatory lung injury. Combinatorial treatment with Aza+TSA mitigated the increased endothelial permeability response after lipopolysaccharide challenge. In addition, we observed reduced lung inflammation and lung injury. Aza+TSA also significantly reduced mortality in the ALI model. The protection was ascribed to inhibition of the eNOS-Cav1-MLC2 signaling pathway and enhanced acetylation of histone markers on the vascular endothelial-cadherin promoter. In summary, these data show for the first time the efficacy of combinatorial Aza+TSA therapy in preventing ALI in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia and raise the possibility of an essential role of DNA methyl transferase and histone deacetylase in the mechanism of ALI.
    American Journal Of Pathology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.05.008 · 4.60 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 26, 2014

Similar Publications