Prognostic Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Post-Resuscitation Encephalopathy
ABSTRACT Prediction of the prognosis of comatose survivors after cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA), so-called post-resuscitation encephalopathy (PRE), relies on neurological examination findings. Early laboratory indicators of poor prognosis (vegetative state/death) are not sensitive enough.
We analyzed the results of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in 22 consecutive patients with PRE. Clinical details such as arrest place and anoxia time along with neurological examination findings including items of Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score were determined. Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves were produced to determine prognostic yield of the parameters studied.
Prognosis was classified as 'poor' (Glasgow-Pittsburg Cerebral Performance -CPC-score 4 or 5) in 16 and 'better' (CPC score 1-3) in 6 patients. The lower limit of confidence interval (CI) of the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC was higher than 0.5 for visual, motor and total scores of GCS and FOUR score. Presence of a lesion pattern of multilobar, or diffuse, cortical involvement, termed as "extensive cortical lesion pattern" in MR imaging was a very good predictor of poor prognosis with an AUC of ROC of 0,937. Sensitivity of GCS motor part score and MR was 87.5% (95% CI: 61.6%-92.6%). Motor part of the FOUR score has a slightly lower sensitivity (68.7% with 95% CI from 41.4% to 88.9%). Incorporating of MR to the motor scores (either GCS or FOUR score) improved sensitivity to 100 % (95% CI: 79.2%-100%). AUC of the ROC was 1.000 (95%CI: 0.844-1.000) for the combination of MR and GCS motor score.
This study provides the preliminary evidence that MRI, when used in conjunction with a neurological examination, may have potential in terms of predicting outcome in patients with PRE.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives To review and update the evidence on predictors of poor outcome (death, persistent vegetative state or severe neurological disability) in adult comatose survivors of cardiac arrest, either treated or not treated with controlled temperature, to identify knowledge gaps and to suggest a reliable prognostication strategy. Methods GRADE-based systematic review followed by expert consensus achieved using Web-based Delphi methodology, conference calls and face-to-face meetings. Predictors based on clinical examination, electrophysiology, biomarkers and imaging were included. Results and conclusions Evidence from a total of 73 studies was reviewed. The quality of evidence was low or very low for almost all studies. In patients who are comatose with absent or extensor motor response at ≥72 h from arrest, either treated or not treated with controlled temperature, bilateral absence of either pupillary and corneal reflexes or N20 wave of short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials were identified as the most robust predictors. Early status myoclonus, elevated values of neuron-specific enolase at 48–72 h from arrest, unreactive malignant EEG patterns after rewarming, and presence of diffuse signs of postanoxic injury on either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging were identified as useful but less robust predictors. Prolonged observation and repeated assessments should be considered when results of initial assessment are inconclusive. Although no specific combination of predictors is sufficiently supported by available evidence, a multimodal prognostication approach is recommended in all patients.Intensive Care Medicine 11/2014; 40(12). DOI:10.1007/s00134-014-3470-x · 5.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prognostication of patients who remain comatose following successful resuscitation after cardiac arrest has long posed a challenge for the consulting neurologist. With increasing rates of early defibrillation, out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and expanding use of therapeutic hypothermia, prognostication in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy has become an increasingly common consult for neurologists. Much of the data we previously relied upon for prognostication were taken from patients who were not treated with therapeutic hypothermia. In this review, we examine useful prognostic tools and markers, including the physical examination, evaluation of myoclonus, electroencephalogram monitoring, somatosensory-evoked potentials, biochemical markers of neuronal injury, and neuroimaging. Neurologists must avoid overly pessimistic prognostic statements regarding survival, awakening from coma, or future quality of life, as such statements may unduly influence decisions regarding the continuation of life-sustaining treatment. Conversely, continuation of aggressive medical management in a patient without any hope of awakening should also be avoided. Thus, an understanding of the utility and the limitations of these prognostic tools in the era of therapeutic hypothermia is essential.07/2014; 4(3):144-52. DOI:10.1177/1941874413509632
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ABSTRACT: Background: To evaluate the post-resuscitation intensive care unit outcome of patients who initially survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients who were admitted to the ICU after OHCA in a tertiary hospital between January, 2005 and December, 2009. We compared the patients' clinical data, the factors associated with ad-mission and the prognosis of patients in cardiac and non-cardiac groups. Results: Sixty-four patients were included in this study. Thirty-four patients were in the cardiac group and thirty patients were in the non-cardiac group. The mean age was 57.3 ± 15.1 years of age in the cardiac group and 61.9 ± 15.7 years of age in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.235). The collapse-to-start of the CPR interval was 5.9 ± 3.8 min in the cardiac group and 6.0 ± 3.2 min in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.851). The complaint of chest pain oc-curred in 12 patients (35.3%) in the cardiac group and 1 patient (3.3%) in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.011). The time duration for making a decision for admission was 285.2 ± 202.2 min in the cardiac group and 327.7 ± 264.1 min in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.471). The regional wall motion abnormality and ejection fraction decrease were significant in the cardiac group (p = 0.002, 0.030). Grade 5 CPC was present in 8 patients (23.5%) in the cardiac group and 14 patients (46.7%) in the non-cardiac group. Conclusions: The key symptom that could initially differentiate the two groups was chest pain. The time duration for making an admission decision was long in both groups. The CPC score of the cardiac group was lower than that for the non-cardiac group.01/2010; 25(4). DOI:10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.212