Chronic lymphocytic leukemia of E mu-TCL1 transgenic mice undergoes rapid cell turnover that can be offset by extrinsic CD257 to accelerate disease progression
ABSTRACT Results of heavy-water labeling studies have challenged the notion that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) represents an accumulation of noncycling B cells. We examined leukemia cell turnover in Emu-TCL1 transgenic (TCL1-Tg) mice, which develop a CLL-like disease at 8 to 12 months of age. We found that leukemia cells in these mice not only had higher proportions of proliferating cells but also apoptotic cells than did nonleukemic lymphocytes. We crossed TCL1-Tg with BAFF-Tg mice, which express high levels of CD257. TCL1 x BAFF-Tg mice developed CLL-like disease at a significantly younger age and had more rapid disease progression and shorter survival than TCL1-Tg mice. Leukemia cells of TCL1 x BAFF-Tg mice had similar proportions of proliferating cells, but fewer proportions of dying cells, than did the CLL cells of TCL1-Tg mice. Moreover, leukemia cells from either TCL1 x BAFF-Tg or TCL1-Tg mice produced more aggressive disease when transferred into BAFF-Tg mice than into wild-type (WT) mice. Neutralization of CD257 resulted in rapid reduction in circulating leukemia cells. These results indicate that the leukemia cells of TCL1-Tg mice undergo high levels of spontaneous apoptosis that is offset by relatively high rates of leukemia cell proliferation, which might allow for acquisition of mutations that contribute to disease evolution.
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ABSTRACT: Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on immune cells are crucial for the early detection of invading pathogens, in initiating early innate immune response and in orchestrating the adaptive immune response. PRRs are activated by specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are present in pathogenic microbes or nucleic acids of viruses or bacteria. However, inappropriate activation of these PRRs, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), due to genetic lesions or chronic inflammation has been demonstrated to be a major cause of many hematological malignancies. Gain-of-function mutations in the TLR adaptor protein MYD88 found in 39% of the activated B cell type of diffuse large B cell lymphomas and almost 100% of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia further highlight the involvement of TLRs in these malignancies. MYD88 mutations result in the chronic activation of TLR signaling pathways, thus the constitutive activation of the transcription factor NFκB to promote cell survival and proliferation. These recent insights into TLR pathway driven malignancies warrant the need for a better understanding of TLRs in cancers and the development of novel anti-cancer therapies targeting TLRs. This review focuses on TLR function and signaling in normal or inflammatory conditions, and how mutations can hijack the TLR signaling pathways to give rise to cancer. Finally, we discuss how potential therapeutic agents could be used to restore normal responses to TLRs and have long lasting anti-tumor effects.Frontiers in Immunology 07/2014; 5:367. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00367
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ABSTRACT: Targeted inhibitors of B-cell receptor signaling have emerged as the most promising therapeutic options against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The inhibitor agents that target Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) have elicited particularly high enthusiasm given the unprecedented positive responses observed in Phase I trials. The sheer amount of clinical data published since last year now requires reinterpretation in light of recently published findings on BTK.
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ABSTRACT: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common human leukemia and dysregulation of the T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (TCL1) oncogene is a contributing event in the pathogenesis of the aggressive form of this disease based on transgenic mouse studies. To determine a role of microRNAs on the pathogenesis of the aggressive form of CLL we studied regulation of TCL1 expression in CLL by microRNAs. We identified miR-3676 as a regulator of TCL1 expression. We demonstrated that miR-3676 targets three consecutive 28-bp repeats within 3'UTR of TCL1 and showed that miR-3676 is a powerful inhibitor of TCL1. We further showed that miR-3676 expression is significantly down-regulated in four groups of CLL carrying the 11q deletions, 13q deletions, 17p deletions, or a normal karyotype compared with normal CD19(+) cord blood and peripheral blood B cells. In addition, the sequencing of 539 CLL samples revealed five germ-line mutations in six samples (1%) in miR-3676. Two of these mutations were loss-of-function mutations. Because miR-3676 is located at 17p13, only 500-kb centromeric of tumor protein p53 (Tp53), and is codeleted with Tp53, we propose that loss of miR-3676 causes high levels of TCL1 expression contributing to CLL progression.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2015; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1500010112 · 9.81 Impact Factor