The structure and pharmacological functions of coumarins and their derivatives.
ABSTRACT Coumarins are of many different structures. They constitute an important class of pharmacological agents possessing a range of different physiological activities including anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti- inflammation, anti-HIV, anti-coagulant, anti-bacterial, analgesic and comparative immune-modulation. Recently, coumarins have attracted intense research interest. Of great interest is the possibility that this class of molecules could be a source of drugs for the therapy of several diseases. These include recent insights into inhibiting cell proliferation by interfering with mitotic spindle microtubule function, decrease Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, block the cell cycle in the S or G2/M phases to interfere with processes of cell division, suppress O2(-) generation in leukocytes, inhibit different protein kinases, modulate the signalings, induce carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and/or NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), suppress the phosphorylation of Akt/PKB as a mechanism inhibiting inflammation, progress in structure modification to increase in anti-fungal action, to broaden against bacteria spectrum, to enhance inhibiting activities of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX), to strengthen anti-oxidant activity and to exhibite a much higher cytotoxicity against human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC). With fewer non-hemorrhagic side effects than the indanedione derivatives, they can be applied as an oral anticoagulant commonly for preventing venous thromboembolism following orthopedic surgery, recurrent myocardial infarction and the treatment of systemic embolism in atrial fibrillation, together with the significant advances in the basis of drug action. It is therefore useful to build up some correlations with the data available in order to better explore the molecular and cellular mechanism of coumarin action in the treatment of diseases. This review will focus on recent advances in molecular and cellular mechanisms of coumarin action involved with the relationship between structure and activity.
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ABSTRACT: In the title mol-ecule, C(16)H(19)BrO(3), all non-H atoms apart from the Br atom are approximately coplanar, with a maximum deviation of 0.242 (4) Å. The C-C-C-Br torsion angle is 66.5 (4)°.Acta Crystallographica Section E Structure Reports Online 06/2012; 68(Pt 6):o1709. · 0.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Periodontal diseases are bacterial infections leading to chronic inflammation disorders that are frequently observed in adults. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of auraptene and lacinartin, two natural oxyprenylated coumarins, on the growth, adherence properties, and collagenase activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. We also investigated the capacity of these compounds to reduce cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and to inhibit MMP-9 activity. METHODS: Microplate dilution assays were performed to determine the effect of auraptene and lacinartin on P. gingivalis growth as well as biofilm formation stained with crystal violet. Adhesion of FITC-labeled P. gingivalis to oral epithelial cells was monitored by fluorometry. The effects of auraptene and lacinartin on LPS-induced cytokine and MMP secretion by macrophages were determined by immunological assays. Fluorogenic assays were used to evaluate the capacity of the two coumarins to inhibit the activity of MMP-9 and P. gingivalis collagenase. RESULTS: Only lacinartin significantly inhibited P. gingivalis growth in a complex culture medium. However, under iron-limiting conditions, auraptene and lacinartin both inhibited the growth of P. gingivalis. Lacinartin also inhibited biofilm formation by P. gingivalis and promoted biofilm desorption. Both compounds prevented the adherence of P. gingivalis to oral epithelial cells, dose-dependently reduced the secretion of cytokines (IL-8 and TNF-alpha) and MMP-8 and MMP-9 by LPS-stimulated macrophages, and inhibited MMP-9 activity. Lacinartin also inhibited P. gingivalis collagenase activity. CONCLUSIONS: By acting on multiple targets, including pathogenic bacteria, tissue-destructive enzymes, and the host inflammatory response, auraptene and lacinartin may be promising natural compounds for preventing and treating periodontal diseases.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2012; 12(1):80. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to isolate and evaluate neuroprotective compounds from the hexane extract of the bark of Mesua kunstleri (Clusiaceae) on H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in NG108-15 cells. Five 4-phenylcoumarins were isolated by using various chromatographic techniques via neuroprotective activity-guided fractionation and isolation from the active hexane extract. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by NMR spectroscopic data interpretation and comparison with literature values. Cell viability data demonstrated that mesuagenin C 3 significantly increased cell viability. Hoechst 33342/PI staining illustrated mesuagenin C 3 was able to abate the nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies. Pretreatment with mesuagenin C 3 reduced total annexin V positive cells and increased the level of intracellular glutathione (GSH). Mesuagenin C 3 attenuated membrane potential (Δψm), reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and inactivated of caspase-3/7 and -9. These results indicated that mesuagenin C 3 could protect NG108-15 cells against H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis by increasing intracellular GSH level, aggrandizing Δψm, and modulating apoptotic signalling pathway through Bcl-2 family and caspase-3/7 and -9. These findings confirmed the involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis and suggested that mesuagenin C 3 may have potential therapeutic properties for neurodegenerative diseases.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:156521. · 1.72 Impact Factor