Article

The oxidative stress menace to coronary vasculature: any place for antioxidants?

1st Cardiology Unit, Hippokration Hospital, Athens University Medical School, 16675, Glifada, Athens, Greece. .
Current pharmaceutical design (Impact Factor: 3.29). 09/2009; 15(26):3078-90. DOI: 10.2174/138161209789058057
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A variety of antioxidants has been used in clinical studies, during the past few years, for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. In small clinical studies it was found that both vitamins C and E may improve endothelial function in high risk patients. However, interventional trials have been controversial, with some positive findings, many null findings, and some suggestion of harm in certain high-risk populations. Therefore, treatment with antioxidant vitamins C and E should not be recommended for the prevention or treatment of coronary atherosclerosis. New antioxidant strategies are needed to clarify the exact role of antioxidant treatment in coronary atherosclerosis.

0 Followers
 · 
49 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Regular strawberry consumption augmented plasma antioxidant activity and decreased lipid peroxidation suggests preventive potential of these fruits against oxidative stress-dependent disorders. Blood phagocytes are important source of oxidants that may contribute to systemic oxidative stress. We examined the effect of strawberry consumption on the luminol enhanced whole blood chemiluminescence (LBCL) reflecting oxidants generation by circulating phagocytes in healthy subjects. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (being on their usual diet) consumed 500 g of strawberry pulp daily (between 11.00-14.00) for 30 days (1st strawberry course) and after 10 day wash-out the cycle was repeated (2nd strawberry course). Fasting blood and spot morning urine samples were collected before and after each strawberry course for measuring resting and agonist (fMLP)-induced LBCL, various phenolics and plasma antioxidant activity. Twenty subjects served as a control in respect to LBCL changes over the study period. Results: Strawberry consumption decreased median resting LBCL and this effect was more evident after the 1st course (by 38.2%, p < 0.05) than after the the 2nd one (18.7%), while fMLP-induced LBCL was constant. No changes in LBCL were noted in controls. Strawberries increased fasting plasma levels of caffeic acid and homovanillic acid as well as urolithin A and 4-hydroxyhippuric acid in spot urine. Plasma antioxidant activity and the number of circulating phagocytes did not change over the study period. Resting LBCL correlated positively with the number of circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes at all occasions and negative correlation with plasma 4-hydroxyhippuric acid was noted especially after the first strawberry course (r = -0.46, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The decrease in resting LBCL suggests that regular strawberry consumption may suppress baseline formation of oxidants by circulating phagocytes. This may decrease the risk of systemic imbalance between oxidants and anti-oxidants and be one of mechanisms of health-promoting effect of these fruits consumption.
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition 06/2014; 33(4):1-14. DOI:10.1080/07315724.2013.870502 · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is responsible for nearly 10% of fetal anomalies in diabetic pregnancies. Although aggressive perinatal care and glycemic control are available in developed countries, the birth defect rate in diabetic pregnancies remains higher than that in the general population. Major cellular activities (ie, proliferation and apoptosis) and intracellular metabolic conditions (ie, nitrosative, oxidative, and endoplasmic reticulum stress) have been shown to be associated with diabetic embryopathy using animal models. Translating advances made in animal studies into clinical applications in humans requires collaborative efforts across the basic research, preclinical, and clinical communities.
    Clinics in laboratory medicine 06/2013; 33(2):207-233. DOI:10.1016/j.cll.2013.03.017 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whether the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) is related to a decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has not yet been completely clarified. We assessed TAC of blood serum in a group of 163 men with CHD aged 34.8-77.0 years and in 163 age-matched peers without CHD. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: ferric reducing ability of serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. In the CHD group, multivariate analysis revealed that uric acid (UA), triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure contributed independently to the TAC-FRAS variance. TAC-DPPH was favorably predicted by UA concentration, but negatively so by current smoking and glucose levels. In men without CHD, UA was the only independent determinant of both TAC-FRAS and TAC-DPPH. Presence of CHD was not an independent predictor of TAC-observed between-group differences (higher TAC in CHD patients) disappeared after adjustment for other confounders. We conclude that UA is the main determinant of TAC of blood serum in men. TAC is not directly influenced by age or CHD but is related to several indices of overweight/obesity and laboratory measures of metabolic syndrome, especially in patients with CHD.
    BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:216964. DOI:10.1155/2014/216964 · 2.71 Impact Factor