Conformational mAb as a tool for integrin ligand discovery.

Department of Chemistry, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA.
Assay and Drug Development Technologies (Impact Factor: 1.9). 09/2009; 7(5):507-15. DOI: 10.1089/adt.2009.0203
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT alpha(4)beta(1)-Integrin (very late antigen-4 (VLA-4)) mediates cell adhesion to cell surface ligands (VCAM-1). Binding of VLA-4 to VCAM-1 initiates rolling and firm adhesion of leukocytes to vascular endothelium followed by the extravasation into the tissue. VLA-4-dependent adhesion plays a key role in controlling leukocyte adhesive events. Small molecules that bind to the integrin ligand-binding site and block its interaction with natural ligands represent promising candidates for treatment of several diseases. Following a flow cytometric screen for small molecule discovery, we took advantage of a conformationally sensitive anti-beta(1)-integrin antibody (HUTS-21) and a small LDV-containing ligand (LDV-FITC) with known affinity to study binding affinities of several known and recently discovered integrin ligands. We found that binding of the LDV-containing small molecule induced exposure of HUTS-21 epitope and that the EC(50) for antibody binding was equal to previously reported K(d) for fluorescent LDV (LDV-FITC). Thus, binding of HUTS-21 can be used to report ligand-binding site occupancy. We studied binding of two known integrin ligands (YLDV and TR14035), as well as of two novel compounds. EC(50) values for HUTS-21 binding showed good correlation with K(i)s determined in the competition assay with LDV-FITC for all ligands. A docking model suggests a common mode of binding for the small molecule VLA-4 ligands. This novel approach described here can be used to determine ligand-binding affinities for unlabeled integrin ligands, and can be adapted to a high-throughput screening format for identification of unknown integrin ligands.

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    ABSTRACT: Ten years ago, we introduced a fluorescent probe that shed light on the inside-out regulation of one of the major leukocyte integrins, very late antigen-4 (VLA-4, CD49d/CD29). Here we describe the regulation of another leukocyte integrin, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18) using a novel small fluorescent probe in real time on live cells. We found that multiple signaling mechanisms regulate LFA-1 conformation in a manner analogous to VLA-4. LFA-1 can be rapidly activated by Gα(i)-coupled G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and deactivated by Gα(s)-coupled GPCRs. The effects of Gα(s)-coupled GPCR agonists can be reversed in real time by receptor-specific antagonists. The specificity of the fluorescent probe binding has been assessed in a competition assay using the natural LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1 and the LFA-1-specific α I allosteric antagonist BIRT0377. Similar to VLA-4 integrin, modulation of the ligand dissociation rate can be observed for different LFA-1 affinity states. However, we also found a striking difference in the binding of the small fluorescent ligand. In the absence of inside-out activation ligand, binding to LFA-1 is extremely slow, at least 10 times slower than expected for diffusion-limited binding. This implies that an additional structural mechanism prevents ligand binding to inactive LFA-1. We propose that such a mechanism explains the inability of LFA-1 to support cell rolling, where the absence of its rapid engagement by a counterstructure in the inactive state leads to a requirement for a selectin-mediated rolling step.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2011; 286(23):20375-86. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interaction of the integrin receptors with ligands determines the molecular basis of integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Integrin ligands are typically large proteins with relatively low binding affinities. This makes direct ligand-binding kinetic measurements somewhat difficult. Here we examine several real-time methods, aimed to overcome these experimental limitations and to distinguish the regulation of integrin conformation and affinity. This chapter includes: the use of a small ligand-mimetic probe for studies of inside-out regulation of integrin affinity and unbending, real-time cell aggregation and disaggregation kinetics to probe integrin conformational states and the number of integrin-ligand bonds, as well as the real-time monitoring of ligand-induced epitopes under signaling through G-protein-coupled receptors, and others. Experimental data obtained using these novel methods are summarized in terms of the current model of integrin activation.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 757:3-14. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Very Late Antigen-4 (CD49d/CD29, alpha4 beta1) and Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18, alphaL beta2) integrins are representatives of a large family of adhesion receptors widely expressed on immune cells. They participate in cell recruitment to sites of inflammation, as well as multiple immune cell interactions. A unique feature of integrins is that integrin-dependent cell adhesion can be rapidly and reversibly modulated in response to cell signaling, because of a series of conformational changes within the molecule, which include changes in the affinity of the ligand binding pocket, molecular extension (unbending) and others. Here, we provide a concise comparative analysis of the conformational regulation of the two integrins with specific attention to the physiological differences between these molecules. We focus on recent data obtained using a novel technology, based on small fluorescent ligand-mimicking probes for the detection of integrin conformation in real-time on live cells at natural receptor abundance.
    Frontiers in Immunology 01/2012; 3:242.

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