Depression and Increased Mortalityin Diabetes: Unexpected Causes of Death

Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA.
The Annals of Family Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.57). 09/2009; 7(5):414-21. DOI: 10.1370/afm.998
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent evidence suggests that depression is linked to increased mortality among patients with diabetes. This study examines the association of depression with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in diabetes.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of primary care patients with type 2 diabetes at Group Health Cooperative in Washington state. We used the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess depression at baseline and reviewed medical records supplemented by the Washington state mortality registry to ascertain the causes of death.
Among a cohort of 4,184 patients, 581 patients died during the follow-up period. Deaths occurred among 428 (12.9%) patients with no depression, among 88 (17.8%) patients with major depression, and among 65 (18.2%) patients with minor depression. Causes of death were grouped as cardiovascular disease, 42.7%; cancer, 26.9%; and deaths that were not due to cardiovascular disease or cancer, 30.5%. Infections, dementia, renal failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most frequent causes in the latter group. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, baseline major depression (relative to no depression) was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-2.85), with cardiovascular mortality (HR = 2.00; 95% CI, 1.37-2.94), and with noncardiovascular, noncancer mortality (HR = 3.35; 95% CI, 2.30-4.89). After additional adjustment for baseline clinical characteristics and health habits, major depression was significantly associated only with all-cause mortality (HR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.19-1.95) and with death not caused by cancer or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (HR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.43-3.24). Minor depression showed similar but nonsignificant associations.
Patients with diabetes and coexisting depression face substantially elevated mortality risks beyond cardiovascular deaths.

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    • "The estimated contribution of depression to mortality is comparable to that of cardiovascular disease among an older (≥60 years) primary care patient cohort with diabetes [31]. While co-morbid depression and diabetes have been specifically linked to increased risk of cardiovascular mortality [14] [32], strong associations with p r i m a r y c a r e d i a b e t e s 7 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 1–10 3 non-cardiac, non-cancer related mortality have also been reported [33]. People with co-morbid diabetes and depression also have significantly worse quality of life relative to people with depression alone, diabetes alone, or non-depressed nondiabetic individuals [34] [35] [36]. "
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    • "Based on full text review a total of 20 key papers were finally identified to be included for annotated bibliography (see online appendices 1). Table 1 summarises the population characteristics and major findings of 20 key studies (Ali et al., 2006; Brown et al., 2006; Barnard et al., 2006; Knol et al., 2007; Engum, 2007; Fisher et al., 2008; Golden et al., 2008; Icks et al.,2008; Mezuk et al., 2008; Katon et al., 2008; Holt et al., 2009; Lin et al., 2009; Collins et al., 2009; Gendelman et al., 2009; Nouwen et al., 2010; Pan et al., 2010; Campayo et al., 2010; Pouwer et al., 2010; Paddison et al., 2011; Renn et al., 2011). Of these, five were systematic reviews and/or Fig. 1. "
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    • "article sur les relations possibles entre l'usage de la glargine et le risque de cancers [1], une bombe médiatique sans nul doute, combien de diabétologues et d'omnipraticiens avaient-ils véritablement identifié à quel point les cancers constituent aujourd'hui une question majeure dans la prise en charge quotidienne de patients porteurs de diabète ? Qui aurait pu donner un pourcentage assez précis quant à cette cause de mortalité chez les patients diabétiques [2] ? Et pourtant, les données étaient disponibles et elles sont impressionnantes (figure 1). "
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