Donor serum SMARCAL1 concentrations predict primary graft dysfunction in cardiac transplantation.
ABSTRACT Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a life-threatening complication in cardiac transplantation. A sensitive, specific, and easily measurable predictor in donors could facilitate PGD prevention.
SMARCAL1 is a matrix-associated regulator of chromatin with helicase and ATPase activities, and its serum concentrations were significantly increased in a targeted protein array in donors whose grafts developed PGD. Therefore, this study analyzed SMARCAL1 serum concentrations by ELISA in 336 heart donors before and after aortic cross-clamping (ACC) and in recipients at 10, 30, and 60 minutes reperfusion. Demographic and hemodynamic parameters of donors and recipients as well as transplant procedure characteristics were documented. PGD (n=68) was defined as ventricular dilation and hypocontractility associated with systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure >20 mm Hg, and decreased mixed venous oxygen saturation necessitating mechanical circulatory support. SMARCAL1 serum protein concentration was significantly increased only before and after ACC in donors (P<0.0001) whose grafts developed PGD compared to those who did not. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, SMARCAL1 serum concentration at a cut-off level of > or =1.25 ng/mL before ACC in donors predicted PGD (P<0.0001, AUC=0.988, OR=17.050, 95% CI=5.200 to 55.901) with 96% sensitivity and 88% specificity. SMARCAL1 serum concentrations <1.25 ng/mL in donors before ACC resulted in 97% PGD-free outcome and SMARCAL1 concentrations > or =1.25 resulted in 83% PGD occurrence.
Donor serum SMARCAL1 may serve as a specific, sensitive, and noninvasive predictive marker in the assessment of cardiac graft quality.