Health Consequences of Nutrition in Childhood and Early Infancy

Children's Medical Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang Ming University, School of Medicine, Taiwan.
Pediatrics & Neonatology (Impact Factor: 1.23). 08/2009; 50(4):135-42. DOI: 10.1016/S1875-9572(09)60051-6
Source: PubMed


Medical and scientific studies have proven that the body's metabolic programming can be influenced by diet and nutrition from early infancy. As a result, the incidence and outcome of several metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders have been found to be associated with birth weight, growth and feeding patterns, and the body composition in early childhood. Exclusive or partial breast feeding for at least 6 months is recommended by the World Health Organization, while the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recommends the introduction of complementary foods at 4-6 months of age. The fat content of the diet should not be below 25% of the energy intake in order to maintain ideal growth while dietary proteins above 15% of the energy intake is related to future obesity. Long term benefits of breast feeding include a more ideal serum lipid profile and blood pressure, improved neuro-cognitive scores, and a decreased incidence for atopic dermatitis in children who have family members with atopic diseases. Several studies have also acknowledged the long term benefits for neuro-cognitive development from certain nutrients including long-chain polyunstaturated fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid. Meat intake has proved to be beneficial to psychomotor development. It is suggested that early introduction for complementary foods before 4 months of age is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis; while no strong evidence showed delaying weaning foods can decrease the risk for allergic diseases.

4 Reads
    • "Early life diet is a modifiable exposure which influences children's health and development [1] [2]. The diet provided to children in the first years of life changes from milk as the sole source of nutrition, to the introduction of foods and beverages that expand in variety, texture and appearance [3] [4]. "

    02/2015; 4(1):14-32. DOI:10.6000/1929-4247.2015.04.01.2
  • Source
    • ". On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, and stunting especially followed by rapid weight gain during infancy induce permanent changes in the structure and organ physiology with long-term metabolic consequences in adulthood [11–13,21,22,25–29]. Poverty conditions potentiate these lifelong alterations [2] [3] [11] [13] [26] [29]. Prevalence of child overweight (13.7%–16.9%) "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early growth is an important indicator of health and wellbeing of children and a good predictor of adult health. The objective of this study was to examine trends and determinants of overweight and stunting among infants aged 0 to 23 month(s) over the past decade (1999-2011) in Uruguay. Data were used from four large representative samples of 11,056 infants aged 0-23 month(s), who attended public and private health services in 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011, using a similar methodology. Linear regression analysis was used for assessing trends in early growth indices and binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of being stunted and overweight. Although prevalence of overweight fell from 12.5% (1999) to 9.5% (2011) and stunting from 13.6% to 10.9% respectively, both rates remained higher than expected. Low birth- weight (LBW) was the main predictor of stunting [OR 6.5 (5.6-7.6)] and macrosomia of overweight [6.7 (5.3-8.3)]. We did not observe changes in LBW (7.8-8.8%) or macrosomia (5.9-6.7%) over the last decade. Boys showed increased chance of being overweight [OR 1.2 (1.04-1.3)]. Being stunted doubles the chances of being overweight [OR 2.5 (2.2-3.0)]. Overweight [OR 7.1 (6.1-8.3)], LBW [OR 13.2 (11.0-15.9)], and non-breastfed infants [OR 1.9 (1.7-2.1)] showed rapid weight gain. Uruguay has taken positive steps to decline the prevalence of stunting and overweight but both remain excessively high.
    Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 12/2014; 32(4):600-7. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Human milk is a complex fluid that simultaneously provides nutrients and bioactive components, thus orchestrating infant development. Milk constituents influence several physiological processes, including growth, modulation and maturation of the immune system, protection from toxins and pathogens, cognitive development and the establishment of the intestinal microbiota (Wu & Chen 2009). Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) represent the third most abundant components of human milk after lactose and lipids, are minimally digested by the infant and are believed to act as bifidogenic substrates (Sela & Mills 2010; Bode 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breast milk is a complex fluid evolutionarily adapted to satisfy the nutritional requirements of growing infants. In addition, milk biochemical and immunological components protect newborns against infective agents in the new environment. Human milk oligosaccharides, the third most abundant component of breast milk, are believed to modulate the microbiota composition, thus influencing a wide range of physiological processes of the infant. Human milk also contains a number of other bioactive compounds, the functional role of which has not yet been clearly elucidated. In this scenario, NMR-based metabolic profiling can provide a rapid characterisation of breast milk composition, thus allowing a better understanding of its nutritional properties.
    Natural product research 10/2013; 28(2). DOI:10.1080/14786419.2013.843180 · 0.92 Impact Factor
Show more