Membrane protein GARP is a receptor for latent TGF-beta on the surface of activated human Treg.
ABSTRACT Human Treg and Th clones secrete the latent form of TGF-beta, in which the mature TGF-beta protein is bound to the latency-associated peptide (LAP), and is thereby prevented from binding to the TGF-beta receptor. We previously showed that upon TCR stimulation, human Treg clones but not Th clones produce active TGF-beta and bear LAP on their surface. Here, we show that latent TGF-beta, i.e. both LAP and mature TGF-beta, binds to glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), a transmembrane protein containing leucine rich repeats, which is present on the surface of stimulated Treg clones but not on Th clones. Membrane localization of latent TGF-beta mediated by binding to GARP may be necessary for the ability of Treg to activate TGF-beta upon TCR stimulation. However, it is not sufficient as lentiviral-mediated expression of GARP in human Th cells induces binding of latent TGF-beta to the cell surface, but does not result in the production of active TGF-beta upon stimulation of these Th cells.
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ABSTRACT: TGFbeta is secreted as part of a latent complex that is targeted to the extracellular matrix. A variety of molecules, 'TGFbeta activators,' release TGFbeta from its latent state. The unusual temporal discontinuity of TGFbeta synthesis and action and the panoply of TGFbeta effects contribute to the interest in TGF-beta. However, the logical connections between TGFbeta synthesis, storage and action are obscure. We consider the latent TGFbeta complex as an extracellular sensor in which the TGFbeta propeptide functions as the detector, latent-TGFbeta-binding protein (LTBP) functions as the localizer, and TGF-beta functions as the effector. Such a view provides a logical continuity for various aspects of TGFbeta biology and allows us to appreciate TGFbeta biology from a new perspective.Journal of Cell Science 02/2003; 116(Pt 2):217-24. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: T regulatory (Tr) cells are essential for the induction of peripheral tolerance. Several types of Tr cells exist, including CD4(+) T cells which express CD25 constitutively and suppress immune responses via direct cell-to-cell interactions, and type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells, which function via secretion of interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. The relationship between CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells and Tr1 cells remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate at the clonal level that Tr1 and CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells are two distinct subsets of regulatory cells with different cytokine production profiles. Furthermore, CD25(-)CD4(+) T cells can be rendered anergic by IL-10 and differentiated into Tr1 cells in the absence of CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells. Cloned human CD25(+)CD4(+) T cell populations are heterogeneous and only a subset of clones continues to express high levels of CD25 and is suppressive. The intensity of CD25, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4, and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor expression correlates with the suppressive capacity of the T cell clones. None of the CD25(+)CD4(+) T cell clones with suppressive function produce IL-10, but all produce TGF-beta. Suppression mediated by CD25(+)CD4(+) T cell clones is partially dependent on TGF-beta, but not on constitutive high expression of CD25. Together these data indicate that naturally occurring human CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells are distinct from IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2002; 196(10):1335-46. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Proteolytic processing of the transforming growth factor beta precursor (pro-TGF beta) is an essential step in the formation of the biologically active TGF beta homodimeric protein (TGF beta). The 361-amino-acid precursor pro-TGF beta 1 has within its primary structure the R-H-R-R processing signal found in many constitutively secreted precursor proteins and potentially recognized by members of the mammalian convertase family of endoproteases. To determine whether cleavage of pro-TGF beta 1 can be achieved by the furin convertase in vitro, purified precursor was incubated in the presence of a truncated/secreted form of the enzyme. Immunoblots showed that the 55-kDa pro-TGF beta 1 was converted into the 44 and 12.5 kDa bands corresponding to the pro-region and the mature monomer, respectively. Treatment of pro-TGF beta 1 with furin resulted in a 5-fold increase in the production of biologically active TGF beta 1. Furthermore, when expressed in the furin-deficient LoVo cells, no processing of pro-TGF beta 1 was observed. In contrast, efficient processing was observed when pro-TGF beta was coexpressed with the furin convertase. Collectively, these results provide evidence that in our experimental systems the TGF beta 1 precursor is efficiently and correctly processed by human furin thus permitting release of the biologically active peptide.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/1995; 270(18):10618-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor