Adenosine Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Production by Murine Macrophages through a Protein Kinase A- and Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP-Independent Signaling Pathway

Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.86). 09/2009; 331(3):1051-61. DOI: 10.1124/jpet.109.157651
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adenosine is generated during tissue hypoxia and stress, which reduces inflammation by suppressing the activity of most immune cells. Among its various actions, adenosine suppresses the production of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, through the cAMP-elevating A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) subtype. In this study, we examined the signaling mechanisms by which A(2A)AR activation inhibits TNF-alpha production in thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages. Pretreating murine macrophages with the nonselective AR agonist adenosine-5'-N-ethylcarboxamide (NECA), the A(2A)AR agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680), or the cAMP-elevating agent forskolin reduced TNF-alpha production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by greater than 60%. All of these agents increased cAMP production in macrophages and activated protein kinase A (PKA). However, we were surprised to find that treating macrophages with three different PKA inhibitors or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac-1) failed to block the suppressive actions of NECA or forskolin on LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Instead, okadaic acid was effective at low concentrations that selectively inhibit protein serine/threonine phosphatases. Subsequent studies showed that NECA and forskolin decreased LPS-induced steady-state TNF-alpha mRNA levels; this effect was due to a decreased rate of transcription based on assays examining the rate of generation of primary TNF-alpha transcripts. Treatment with NECA or forskolin did not interfere with LPS-induced translocation or DNA binding of the RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB or phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB-alpha, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, or p38 kinase. Our results suggest that AR activation inhibits LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by murine macrophages at the level of gene transcription through a unique cAMP-dependent, but PKA- and Epac-independent, signaling pathway involving protein phosphatase activity.

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    ABSTRACT: Roflumilast is the first phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor to have been approved for the treatment of COPD. The anti-inflammatory profile of PDE4 inhibitors has not yet been explored in human lung tissues. We investigated the effects of roflumilast and its active metabolite roflumilast-N-oxide on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and chemokines by human lung parenchymal explants. We also investigated roflumilast's interaction with the long-acting β2-agonist formoterol. Explants from 25 patients undergoing surgical lung resection were incubated with Roflumilast, Roflumilast-N-oxide and formoterol and stimulated with LPS. Levels of TNF-α, chemokines (in the culture supernatants) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (in tissue homogenates) were determined with appropriate immunoassays. Roflumilast and Roflumilast-N-oxide concentration-dependently reduced the release of TNF-α and chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL9 and CXCL10 from LPS-stimulated human lung explants, whereas CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL8 release was not altered. Formoterol (10 nM) partially decreased the release of the same cytokines and significantly increased the inhibitory effect of roflumilast on the release of the cytokines. In human lung parenchymal explants, roflumilast and roflumilast-N-oxide reduced the LPS-induced release of TNF-α and chemokines involved in the recruitment of monocytes and T-cells but not those involved in the recruitment of neutrophils. Addition of formoterol to roflumilast provided superior in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, which may translate into greater efficacy in COPD.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74640. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074640 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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