Article

EEG spectral phenotypes: heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Drug and alcohol dependence (Impact Factor: 3.28). 09/2009; 106(2-3):101-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.07.024
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Native Americans have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown. The present investigation evaluated the heritability of spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their correlation with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community. Participants (n=626) were evaluated for marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ALC) dependence, as well as other psychiatric disorders. EEGs were collected from six cortical sites and spectral power determined in five frequency bands (delta 1.0-4.0 Hz, theta 4.0-7.5 Hz, alpha 7.5-12.0 Hz, low beta 12.0-20.0 Hz and high beta/gamma 20-50 Hz). The estimated heritability (h(2)) of the EEG phenotypes was calculated using SOLAR, and ranged from 0.16 to 0.67. Stepwise linear regression was used to detect correlations between MJ and ALC dependence and the spectral characteristics of the EEG using a model that took into account: age, gender, Native American Heritage (NAH) and a lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality and/or conduct disorder (ASPD/CD). Increases in spectral power in the delta frequency range, were significantly correlated with gender (p<0.001) and marijuana dependence (p<0.003). Gender, age, NAH and ASPD/CD were all significantly (p<0.001) correlated with theta, alpha and beta band power, whereas alcohol dependence (p<0.01), gender (p<0.001), and ASPD/CD (p<0.001) were all correlated with high beta/gamma band power. These data suggest that the traits of EEG delta and high beta/gamma activity are correlated with MJ dependence and alcohol dependence, respectively, in this community sample of Native Americans.

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