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Regulation of adult neurogenesis by stress, sleep disruption, exercise and inflammation: Implications for depression and antidepressant action

Centre for Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute of Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, P.O. box 94214, 1090 GE Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 5.4). 09/2009; 20(1):1-17. DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2009.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a once unorthodox concept, has changed into one of the most rapidly growing fields in neuroscience. The present report results from the ECNP targeted expert meeting in 2007 during which cellular plasticity changes were addressed in the adult brain, focusing on neurogenesis and apoptosis in hippocampus and frontal cortex. We discuss recent studies investigating factors that regulate neurogenesis with special emphasis on effects of stress, sleep disruption, exercise and inflammation, a group of seemingly unrelated factors that share at least two unifying properties, namely that they all regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis and have all been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. We conclude that although neurogenesis has been implicated in cognitive function and is stimulated by antidepressant drugs, its functional impact and contribution to the etiology of depression remains unclear. A lasting reduction in neurogenesis following severe or chronic stress exposure, either in adult or early life, may represent impaired hippocampal plasticity and can contribute to the cognitive symptoms of depression, but is, by itself, unlikely to produce the full mood disorder. Normalization of reductions in neurogenesis appears at least partly, implicated in antidepressant action.

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Available from: Paul J Lucassen, Jul 28, 2015
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    • "Hindawi Publishing Corporation Neural Plasticity Volume 2014, Article ID 808643, 3 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/808643 Neural Plasticity factors, such as age, exercise, (early) stress, and disease [4] [5] [6] [7] "
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    ABSTRACT: There are few fields in neuroscience that have witnessed a faster development than the field of adult neurogenesis in the past decade. The discovery of stem cells present in the adult brain that give rise to new neurons has raised a lot of interest as it changed current concepts of brain plasticity and possible strategies for brain repair. While neurogenesis, today, has become a well-acknowledged phenomenon, many open questions remain. In this special issue, we have compiled a selection of articles that address several timely topics related to neurogenesis and discuss some of the unresolved questions concerning the functional relevance of adult neurogenesis, its regulation, and its role in the diseased brain. The history of the field of adult neurogenesis is filled with controversies. By the end of the nineteenth century, largely due to influential scientists like y Cajal [1], it was firmly believed that no new neurons were added to the adult mammalian brain. A central dogma in neuroscience was that brains of mammals remained structurally constant from soon after birth. Neurogenesis was believed to occur only in early development and to rapidly decrease shortly thereafter. In the early 1960s, ground-breaking studies challenged this well-accepted doctrine by reporting the presence of newborn cells in various brain structures of young and adult rats, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb [2, 3]. These reports, however, were essentially ignored by the scientific community, and it was not until the end of the twentieth century, more than 100 years after the initial formulation of y Cajal's tenacious dogma, that a novel concept could develop. In the late 1990s, a series of papers initiated an explosion of research on the existence, function, and implications of adult mammalian neurogenesis. Over the years, accumulating evidence has since established adult neurogenesis as a concept, and it is now widely accepted that the adult brain is far from being fixed but is rather a highly plastic organ in which new neurons are indeed added to the existing network throughout life in all mammals including humans. An overview of the controversial history of adult neurogenesis is reviewed in this issue by E. Fuchs and G. Flügge. Today, we know that neurogenesis occurs in the adult central nervous system throughout life in at least a few discrete regions, like the hippocampus and subventricular zone. From rodents to primates, neurons are continuously produced in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. New neurons are also generated in the subventricular zone, the largest germinal zone of the adult mammalian brain, from which they extensively migrate along the rostral migratory stream into the olfactory bulb. A highly dynamic process, adult neurogenesis is fur-ther regulated by several endogenous as well as exogenous
    Neural Plasticity 12/2014; 808643(3). DOI:10.1155/2014/808643 · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    • "Moreover, contemporary hunter-gathers burn an estimated 3,000 calories a day, as compared with 2,000 calories a day for U.S. adults (Eaton et al., 1997). Exercise acts on multiple pathways thought to influence depression, including chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and serotonergic and dopaminergic activity (Lucassen et al., 2010). Moreover, these biological systems undergo dramatic changes during pregnancy and lactation (Elenkov et al., 2001), which raises the possibility that exercise-induced regulation of these systems might be even more important during the postpartum transition. "
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    • ". However, the effects of stress on neurogenesis are not consistent and may depend on study design and importantly on the nature and duration of the stressor [16] [17]. Many studies report that stress, especially when experienced chronically (in the form of CVS), suppresses one or more phases of the adult hippocampal neurogenesis process [16,18–22]. "
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