Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection inhibits intestinal serotonin transporter function and expression.
ABSTRACT Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) availability in the gut. Elevated 5-HT levels are associated with diarrheal conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and enteric infections. Whether alteration in SERT activity contributes to the pathophysiology of diarrhea induced by the food-borne pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is not known. The present studies examined the effects of EPEC infection on SERT activity and expression in intestinal epithelial cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms.
Caco-2 cells as a model of human intestinal epithelia and EPEC-infected C57BL/6J mouse model of infection were utilized. SERT activity was measured as Na(+) and Cl(-) dependent (3)[H] 5-HT uptake. SERT expression was measured by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence studies.
Infection of Caco-2 cells with EPEC for 30-120 minutes decreased apical SERT activity (P < .001) in a type 3 secretion system dependent manner and via involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases. EPEC infection decreased V(max) of the transporter; whereas cell surface biotinylation studies revealed no alteration in the cellular or plasma membrane content of SERT in Caco-2 cells. EPEC infection of mice (24 hours) reduced SERT immunostaining with a corresponding decrease in SERT messenger RNA levels, 5-HT uptake, and mucosal 5-HT content in the small intestine.
Our results demonstrate inhibition of SERT by EPEC and define the mechanisms underlying these effects. These data may aid in the development of a novel pharmacotherapy to modulate the serotonergic system in treatment of infectious diarrheal diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The serotonin transporter (SERT) facilitates clearance of extracellular 5-HT by its uptake and internalization. Decreased expression of SERT and consequent high 5-HT levels have been implicated in various diarrheal disorders. Thus, appropriate regulation of SERT is critical for the maintenance of 5-HT homeostasis in health and disease. Previous studies demonstrated that SERT is regulated via both post-translational and transcriptional mechanisms. However, the role of epigenetic mechanisms in SERT regulation is not known. Current studies investigated the effects of HDAC inhibition on SERT expression and delineated the mechanisms. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with pan-HDAC inhibitors, butyrate (5mM) or TSA (1μM) decreased SERT mRNA and protein levels. Decrease in SERT by butyrate or TSA was associated with a decreased activity of hSERTp1 (upstream of exon 1a) but not hSERTp2 (upstream of exon 2). Butyrate and TSA together did not show an additive effect on SERT expression indicating that mechanisms involving histone hyperacetylation may be involved. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated an enrichment of the hSERTp1 (flanking -250/+2 bp) with tetra-acetylated H3 or H4 histones, which was increased (~ three-fold) by butyrate. Interestingly, specific inhibition of HDAC2 (but not HDAC1) utilizing siRNA decreased SERT mRNA and protein levels. The decrease in SERT expression by HDAC inhibition was recapitulated in an in vivo model. SERT mRNA levels were decreased in ileum and colon of pectin (increased availability of butyrate) fed mice compared to controls fed fiber free diet (~50-60%). Our results identify novel role of HDAC2 as a regulator of SERT gene expression in IECs.AJP Cell Physiology 11/2012; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-HT) has been recognized for decades as an important signalling molecule in the gut, but it is still revealing its secrets. Novel gastrointestinal functions of 5-HT continue to be discovered, as well as distant actions of gut-derived 5-HT, and we are learning how 5-HT signalling is altered in gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional functions of 5-HT involving intrinsic reflexes include stimulation of propulsive and segmentation motility patterns, epithelial secretion and vasodilation. Activation of extrinsic vagal and spinal afferent fibres results in slowed gastric emptying, pancreatic secretion, satiation, pain and discomfort, as well as nausea and vomiting. Within the gut, 5-HT also exerts nonconventional actions such as promoting inflammation and serving as a trophic factor to promote the development and maintenance of neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal. Platelet 5-HT, originating in the gut, promotes haemostasis, influences bone development and serves many other functions. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and 5-HT4 receptor agonists have been used to treat functional disorders with diarrhoea or constipation, respectively, and the synthetic enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase has also been targeted. Emerging evidence suggests that exploiting epithelial targets with nonabsorbable serotonergic agents could provide safe and effective therapies. We provide an overview of these serotonergic actions and treatment strategies.Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 06/2013; · 10.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Hosts are protected from attack by potentially harmful enteric microorganisms, viruses, and parasites by the polarized fully differentiated epithelial cells that make up the epithelium, providing a physical and functional barrier. Enterovirulent bacteria interact with the epithelial polarized cells lining the intestinal barrier, and some invade the cells. A better understanding of the cross talk between enterovirulent bacteria and the polarized intestinal cells has resulted in the identification of essential enterovirulent bacterial structures and virulence gene products playing pivotal roles in pathogenesis. Cultured animal cell lines and cultured human nonintestinal, undifferentiated epithelial cells have been extensively used for understanding the mechanisms by which some human enterovirulent bacteria induce intestinal disorders. Human colon carcinoma cell lines which are able to express in culture the functional and structural characteristics of mature enterocytes and goblet cells have been established, mimicking structurally and functionally an intestinal epithelial barrier. Moreover, Caco-2-derived M-like cells have been established, mimicking the bacterial capture property of M cells of Peyer's patches. This review intends to analyze the cellular and molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of human enterovirulent bacteria observed in infected cultured human colon carcinoma enterocyte-like HT-29 subpopulations, enterocyte-like Caco-2 and clone cells, the colonic T84 cell line, HT-29 mucus-secreting cell subpopulations, and Caco-2-derived M-like cells, including cell association, cell entry, intracellular lifestyle, structural lesions at the brush border, functional lesions in enterocytes and goblet cells, functional and structural lesions at the junctional domain, and host cellular defense responses.Microbiology and molecular biology reviews: MMBR 09/2013; 77(3):380-439. · 12.59 Impact Factor